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 Cobalt-complexes for electrolytes


The interest in cobalt-based electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells was triggered by the pioneering work of CMD  (Feldt et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2010, 132, 16714), in which cobalt-based redox mediators in combination with organic sensitizers were used. Cobalt complexes are one-electron mediators in contrast to the conventional two-electron redox couple iodide/tri-iodide, and therefore have the potential for higher voltage and efficiency in DSSCs. This has been confirmed by e.g. the high efficiency DSSC work by Yella et al.(DOI:10.1126/science.1209688), and by Kakiage (DOI:10.1039/C5CC06759F).

For best performance and flexibility, Dyenamo recommends ordering Co(II) and Co(III) complexes as powders. Please note that you need both Co(II) and Co(III) complexes to make a DSSC electrolyte. Typically, five times more Co(II) is used. In addition to the standard cobalt-complexes, Dyenamo also offers complete cobalt-based electrolytes on demand.

The number of cobalt-complexes that could be use in DSSC electrolytes is enormous. Dyenamo offers 19 standard cobalt complexes, the original ones used in the references above, water-soluble ones, and others for improved long-term device stability and/or increased open-circuit voltage . Other cobalt-complexes can be ordered on demand with various ligands (phenantholine, substituted bipyridines, etc.) and  counter ions (Cl-, PF6-, TfO- (=triflate), Tf2N- (=TFSI), BF4-, B(CN)4-, etc.).

Performance-boosting additives

Water-soluble Cobalt-complexes

Cobalt-complexes for increased open circuit voltage

Original Cobalt-complexes

Cobalt-complexes for improved device stability




Performance-boosting additives

DN-X04

tris(4-methoxyphenyl)amine


Description:
Tris(4-methoxyphenyl)amine is a small and versatile redox-active molecule which can be employed in both liquid and solid-state solar cells. In DSSCs with liquid electrolyte it can be used together with a metal-based redox couple to enable exceptionally fast dye regeneration, giving easy access to >10% efficiencies. In solid-state solar cells it may be used as a low cost hole-transporting material, either by itself or combined with another material such as P3HT.

Full name:
tris(4-methoxyphenyl)amine

Alternative name:
TPAA, TAA, tris(p-anisyl)amine, tris(para-anisyl)amine

CAS number:
13050-56-1

Typical properties:
Eox (DCM) = 0.85 V vs. NHE
MW = 335.40 g/mol

References:
J. Phys. Chem. C 2012, 116, 18070-18078, DOI: 10.1021/jp3052449
Chem. Mater., 2001, 13 (11), pp 4105-4111, DOI: 10.1021/cm010281p
Nature Commun. 7 (2016) 13934, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms13934
DN-X04
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Water-soluble Cobalt-complexes

DN-C15

Co(bpy)3Cl2


DN-C15_Small

Full name:
Tris(2,2'-bipyridine)cobalt(II) dichloride

CAS number:
14855-51-7

Properties:
E02+/3+(H2O): 0.33 V vs NHE
MW: 598.40 g/mol

Reference:
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2016, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C6CP00264A

Additional information:
For usage in water-based DSSC, the Cobalt-complexes DN-C15 to DN-C18 can be combined with the dye DN-F05M.
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DN-C16

Co(bpy)3Cl3


DN-C16_small

Full name:
Tris(2,2'-bipyridine)cobalt(III) trichloride

CAS number:
19488-82-5

Properties:
E02+/3+(H2O): 0.33 V vs NHE
MW: 633.85 g/mol

Reference:
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2016, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C6CP00264A

Additional information:
For usage in water-based DSSC, the Cobalt-complexes DN-C15 to DN-C18 can be combined with the dye DN-F05M.
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DN-C17

Co(phen)3Cl2


DN-C17_small

Full name:
Tris(1,10-phenanthroline)cobalt(II) dichloride

CAS number:
15136-98-8

Properties:
E02+/3+(H2O): 0.33 V vs NHE
MW: 670.46 g/mol

Reference:
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2016, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C6CP00264A

Additional information:
For usage in water-based DSSC, the Cobalt-complexes DN-C15 to DN-C18 can be combined with the dye DN-F05M.
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DN-C18

Co(phen)3Cl3


DN-C18_small

Full name:
Tris(1,10-phenanthroline)cobalt(III) trichloride

CAS number:
15406-83-4

Properties:
E02+/3+(H2O): 0.33 V vs NHE
MW: 705.91 g/mol

Reference:
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2016, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C6CP00264A

Additional information:
For usage in water-based DSSC, the Cobalt-complexes DN-C15 to DN-C18 can be combined with the dye DN-F05M.
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DN-C19

Co(bpy-pz)2Cl2


DN-C19_small

Full name:
bis(6-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2,2'-bipyridine)cobalt(II) dichloride

Properties:
E02+/3+(H2O): 0.60 V vs NHE
MW: 574.34 g/mol

Reference:
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2016, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C6CP00264A

Application example:
In water-based DSSCs, the DN-C19/C20 redox couple combined with the dye DN-F05M have reached power conversion efficiencies of up to 5.7%. The higher redox potential of C19/C20 compared to C15/C16 and C17/C18 enables an increase in the device's photovoltage.
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DN-C20

Co(bpy-pz)2Cl3


DN-C20_small

Full name:
bis(6-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2,2'-bipyridine)cobalt(III) trichloride

Properties:
E02+/3+(H2O): 0.60 V vs NHE
MW: 609.79 g/mol

Reference:
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2016, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C6CP00264A

Application example:
In water-based DSSCs, the DN-C19/C20 redox couple combined with the dye DN-F05M have reached power conversion efficiencies of up to 5.7%. The higher redox potential of C19/C20 compared to C15/C16 and C17/C18 enables an increase in the device's photovoltage.
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Cobalt-complexes for increased open circuit voltage

DN-C07

Co(phen)3(PF6)2


DN-C07_small

Full name:
Tris(1,10-phenanthroline)cobalt bis(hexafluorophosphate)

CAS number:
31876-74-1

Properties:
E02+/3+: 0.61 V vs NHE
MW: 889.49 g/mol

Reference:
Feldt et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2013, 15, 7087-7097
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DN-C08

Co(phen)3(PF6)3


DN-C08_small

Full name:
Tris(1,10-phenanthroline)cobalt tris(hexafluorophosphate)

CAS number:
28277-59-0

Properties:
E02+/3+: 0.61 V vs NHE
MW: 1034.46 g/mol

Reference:
Feldt et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2013, 15, 7087-7097
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DN-C09

Co(bpy-pz)2(PF6)2


DN-C09_small

Full name:
Bis(6-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2,2'-bipyridine)cobalt bis(hexafluorophosphate)

CAS number:
312322-08-0

Properties:
E02+/3+: 0.86 V vs NHE
MW: 793.36 g/mol

Reference:
  • Feldt et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2013, 15, 7087-7097
  • Yum, J.-H. et al. Nat. Commun. 3:631 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms1655 (2012)
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DN-C10

Co(bpy-pz)2(PF6)3


DN-C10_small

Full name:
Bis(6-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2,2'-bipyridine)cobalt tris(hexafluorophosphate)

CAS number:
1346417-60-4

Properties:
E02+/3+: 0.86 V vs NHE
MW: 938.33 g/mol

Reference:
  • Feldt et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2013, 15, 7087-7097
  • Yum, J.-H. et al. Nat. Commun. 3:631 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms1655 (2012)
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Original Cobalt-complexes

DN-C01

Co(bpy)3(PF6)2


DN-C01_small

Full name:
Tris-(2,2’-bipyridine)cobalt(II) di(hexafluorophosphate)

CAS number:
79151-78-3

Properties:
MW: 817.13 g/mol

Reference:
Feldt et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2010, 132, 16714
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DN-C02

Co(bpy)3(PF6)3


DN-C02_small
Full name:
Tris-(2,2’-bipyridine)cobalt(III) tri(hexafluorophosphate)

CAS number:
28277-53-4

Properties:
MW: 962.37 g/mol

Reference:
Feldt et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2010, 132, 16714
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DN-C03

Co(bpy)3 (B(CN)4)2


DN-C03_small

Full name:
Tris-(2,2’-bipyridine)cobalt(II) di(tetracyanoborate)

CAS number:
1350928-19-6

Properties:
MW: 757.25 g/mol

Reference:
Yella, A. et al., Science 2011, 334, 629
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DN-C04

Co(bpy)3 (B(CN)4)3


DN-C04_small

Full name:
Tris-(2,2’-bipyridine)cobalt(III) tri(tetracyanoborate)

CAS number:
1350928-20-9

Properties:
MW: 872.13 g/mol

Reference:
Yella, A. et al., Science 2011, 334, 629
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DN-C13

Co(bpy)3 (TFSI)2


DN-C13_small

Full name:
Tris-(2,2'-bipyridine)cobalt(II)di(bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide)

CAS number:
1353745-90-0

Properties:
E02+/3+: 0.57 V vs NHE
MW: 1087.8 g/mol

Reference:
Yella, A., et al. Chem. Mater., 2013, 25 (13), pp 2733-2739 DOI: 10.1021/cm401593b
Kavan, L., et al. Electrochimica Acta, 2016, vol. 195, p. 34-42 DOI: 10.1016/j.electacta.2016.02.097
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DN-C14

Co(bpy)3 (TFSI)3


DN-C14_small

Full name:
Tris-(2,2'-bipyridine)cobalt(III)tri(bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide)

CAS number:
1353745-91-1

Properties:
E02+/3+: 0.57 V vs NHE
MW: 1367.9 g/mol

Reference:
Yella, A., et al. Chem. Mater., 2013, 25 (13), pp 2733-2739 DOI: 10.1021/cm401593b
Kavan, L., et al. Electrochimica Acta, 2016, vol. 195, p. 34-42 DOI: 10.1016/j.electacta.2016.02.097

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Cobalt-complexes for improved device stability

DN-C11

Co(bpyPY4)(PF6)2


DN-C11_small

Full name:
(6,6'-bis(1,1-di(pyridin-2-yl)ethyl)-2,2'-bipyridine)cobalt bis(hexafluorophosphate)

Properties:
MW: 869.50 g/mol

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DN-C12

Co(bpyPY4)(PF6)3


DN-C12_small

Full name:
(6,6'-bis(1,1-di(pyridin-2-yl)ethyl)-2,2'-bipyridine)cobalt tris(hexafluorophosphate)

Properties:
MW: 1014.47 g/mol

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