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 Copper-complexes for hole conductors and electrolytes


The interest in copper-based electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells (e.g. Bai et al., Chem. Commun., 2011,47, 4376-4378) was triggered by the work on cobalt-based electrolytes (Feldt et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2010, 132, 16714). Both the cobalt- and copper- complexes are one-electron mediators in contrast to the conventional two-electron redox couple iodide/tri-iodide, and therefore have the potential for higher voltage and efficiency in DSSCs. Cell efficiencies up towards 10% have already been achieved with DSSC Cu-based chemistry (Cong et al.). In addition, copper-complexes alone can constitute hole conducting materials suitable for solid state DSSC and perovskite solar cells. This has resulted in solid state DSSC with efficiencies exceeding 8 % (Freitag et al., Energy & Environmental Science, 2015). For more information, see blog-post from Anders Hagfeldt and Gerrit Boschloo.

The number of copper-complexes that could be used as hole conductors and in DSSC electrolytes is enormous. Dyenamo offers 11 state-of-the-art standard copper complexes, other ones can be obtained on demand.




DN-Cu01

CuI(dmp)2TFSI





DN-Cu01_small
Full name:
bis-(2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline)copper(I) bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide

CAS number:
1301639-09-7

Typical properties:
E01+/2+ (MeCN) = 0.90 V vs NHE
MW = 760.21 g/mol

References:

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DN-Cu02

CuII(dmp)2TFSI Cl





DN-Cu02_small
Full name:
bis-(2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline)copper(II)bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide chloride

Typical properties:
E01+/2+ (MeCN) = 0.90 V vs NHE
MW = 795.66 g/mol

References:

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DN-Cu08

CuII(dmp)2(TFSI)2





DN-Cu08_small
Description:
DN-Cu08 is a copper(II) complex with excellent solubility in acetonitrile and many other solvents used for DSSC electrolytes.

Full name:
bis-(2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline)copper(II) bis(bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide)

CAS number:
1301639-10-0

Typical properties:
E01+/2+ (MeCN) = 0.90 V vs NHE
MW = 1040.35 g/mol

References:
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2016, 138, 15087-15096 DOI: 10.1021/jacs.6b10721

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DN-Cu03

CuI(dmp)2 PF6





DN-Cu03_small
Full name:
bis-(2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline)copper(I) hexafluorophosphate

CAS number:
136157-01-2

Typical properties:
E01+/2+ (MeCN) = 0.90 V vs NHE
MW = 625.04 g/mol


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DN-Cu04

CuII(dmp)2 (PF6)2





DN-Cu04_small

Full name:
bis-(2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline)copper(II) bis(hexafluorophosphate)

Typical properties:
E01+/2+ (MeCN) = 0.90 V vs NHE
MW = 770.00 g/mol


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DN-Cu05

CuI(bpye)2PF6





DN-Cu05_small
Description:
DN-Cu05/06 is a Dyenamo-developed high-performance redox couple for DSSC. Used together with LEG4 (DN-F05), efficiencies up to 9% have been achieved at full AM 1.5G intensity (9.9% at 0.5 sun).

Full name:
Bis(1,1-Bis(2-pyridyl)ethane)copper(I) hexafluorophosphate

Typical properties:
EOX (MeCN) = 0.59 V vs NHE
MW = 576.99 g/mol

References:
Jiayan Cong, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2016, DOI: 10.1039/C6TA06782D

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DN-Cu06

CuI(bpye)2(PF6)2





DN-Cu06_small
Description:
DN-Cu05/06 is a Dyenamo-developed high-performance redox couple for DSSC. Used together with LEG4 (DN-F05), efficiencies up to 9% have been achieved at full AM 1.5G intensity (9.9% at 0.5 sun).

Full name:
Bis(1,1-Bis(2-pyridyl)ethane)copper(II) bis(hexafluorophosphate)

Typical properties:
EOX (MeCN) = 0.59 V vs NHE
MW = 721.96 g/mol

References:
Jiayan Cong, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2016, DOI: 10.1039/C6TA06782D

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DN-Cu09

CuI(tmby)2TFSI





DN-Cu09_small
Description:
Cu(tmby)2TFSI1/2 is a copper based redox couple with a slightly lower redox potential than the prototypical Cu(dmp)2 complex. It may be used for example in systems where Cu(dmp)2 does not provide sufficient driving force for regeneration or when slower recombination is required.

Full name:
bis-(4,4',6,6'-tetramethyl-2,2'-bipyridine)copper(I) bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide

Typical properties:
E01+/2+ (MeCN): 0.87 V vs SHE
MW = 768.27 g/mol

References:
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2016, 138, 15087-15096 DOI: 10.1021/jacs.6b10721

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DN-Cu10

CuII(tmby)2(TFSI)2





DN-Cu10_small
Description:
Cu(tmby)2TFSI1/2 is a copper based redox couple with a slightly lower redox potential than the prototypical Cu(dmp)2 complex. It may be used for example in systems where Cu(dmp)2 does not provide sufficient driving force for regeneration or when slower recombination is required.

Full name:
bis-(4,4',6,6'-tetramethyl-2,2'-bipyridine)copper(II) bis[bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide]

Typical properties:
E01+/2+ (MeCN): 0.87 V vs SHE
MW = 1048.41 g/mol

References:
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2016, 138, 15087-15096 DOI: 10.1021/jacs.6b10721

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DN-Cu11

Cu(dmby)2TFSI





DN-Cu11_small
Description:
Cu(dmby)2TFSI1/2 is a copper based redox couple with a slightly higher redox potential than the prototypical Cu(dmp)2 complex. It enables the construction of cells with high Voc (1.07 V with Y123 (DN-F05Y)) without compromising with device efficiency.

Full name:
bis-(6,6'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine)copper(I) bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide

CAS number:
1882083-74-0

Typical properties:
E01+/2+ (MeCN): 0.97 V vs NHE
MW = 721.17 g/mol

References:
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2016, 138, 15087-15096 DOI: 10.1021/jacs.6b10721

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DN-Cu12

Cu(dmby)2(TFSI)2





DN-Cu12_small
Description:
Cu(dmby)2TFSI1/2 is a copper based redox couple with a slightly higher redox potential than the prototypical Cu(dmp)2 complex. It enables the construction of cells with high Voc (1.07 V with Y123 (DN-F05Y)) without compromising with device efficiency.

Full name:
bis-(6,6'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine)copper(II) bis[bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide]

Typical properties:
E01+/2+ (MeCN): 0.97 V vs SHE
MW = 992.30 g/mol

References:
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2016, 138, 15087-15096 DOI: 10.1021/jacs.6b10721

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