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Home > Materials > Cobalt complexes for electrolytes

Cobalt complexes for electrolytes

The interest in cobalt-based electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells was triggered by the pioneering work of CMD  (Feldt et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2010, 132, 16714), in which cobalt-based redox mediators in combination with organic sensitizers were used. Cobalt complexes are one-electron mediators in contrast to the conventional two-electron redox couple iodide/tri-iodide, and therefore have the potential for higher voltage and efficiency in DSSCs. This has been confirmed by e.g. the high efficiency DSSC work by Yella et al.(DOI:10.1126/science.1209688), and by Kakiage (DOI:10.1039/C5CC06759F).

For best performance and flexibility, Dyenamo recommends ordering Co(II) and Co(III) complexes as powders. Please note that you need both Co(II) and Co(III) complexes to make a DSSC electrolyte. Typically, five times more Co(II) is used. In addition to the standard cobalt complexes, Dyenamo also offers complete cobalt-based electrolytes on demand.

The number of cobalt complexes that could be use in DSSC electrolytes is enormous. Dyenamo offers 16 standard cobalt complexes, the original ones used in the references above, water-soluble ones, and others for improved long-term device stability and/or increased open-circuit voltage . Other cobalt complexes can be ordered on demand with various ligands (phenanthroline, substituted bipyridines, etc.) and counter ions (Cl-, PF6-, TfO- (=triflate), Tf2N- (=TFSI), BF4-, B(CN)4-, etc.).


Overview

Counter ion Cl PF6 TFSI B(CN)4
Complex
Co(bpy)3 Standard material:
DN-C15
DN-C16
Standard material:
DN-C01
DN-C02
Standard material:
DN-C13
DN-C14
Standard material:
DN-C03
DN-C04
Co(phen)3 Standard material:
DN-C17
DN-C18
Standard material:
DN-C07
DN-C08
Available on demand Available on demand
Co(bpy-pz)2 Standard material:
DN-C19
DN-C20
Standard material:
DN-C09
DN-C10
Available on demand Available on demand

Performance-boosting additives

Water-soluble cobalt complexes

Cobalt complexes for increased open circuit voltage

Original cobalt complexes




Performance-boosting additives

DN-X04

tris(4-methoxyphenyl)amine


Description:
Tris(4-methoxyphenyl)amine is a small and versatile redox-active molecule which can be employed in both liquid and solid-state solar cells. In DSSCs with liquid electrolyte it can be used together with a metal-based redox couple to enable exceptionally fast dye regeneration, giving easy access to >10% efficiencies. In solid-state solar cells it may be used as a low cost hole-transporting material, either by itself or combined with another material such as P3HT.

Full name:
tris(4-methoxyphenyl)amine

Alternative name:
TPAA, TAA, tris(p-anisyl)amine, tris(para-anisyl)amine

CAS number:
13050-56-1

Typical properties:
Eox (DCM) = 0.85 V vs. NHE
MW = 335.40 g/mol

References:
J. Phys. Chem. C 2012, 116, 18070-18078, DOI: 10.1021/jp3052449
Chem. Mater., 2001, 13 (11), pp 4105-4111, DOI: 10.1021/cm010281p
Nature Commun. 7 (2016) 13934, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms13934









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Water-soluble Cobalt-complexes

DN-C15

Co(bpy)3Cl2 · 5 H2O



Full name:
Tris(2,2'-bipyridine)cobalt(II) dichloride pentahydrate

CAS number:
14855-51-7

Properties:
E02+/3+(H2O): 0.33 V vs NHE
MW: 688.47 g/mol

Reference:
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2016, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C6CP00264A

Additional information:
For usage in water-based DSSC, the Cobalt-complexes DN-C15 to DN-C18 can be combined with the dye DN-F05M.
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DN-C16

Co(bpy)3Cl3 · 4 H2O



Full name:
Tris(2,2'-bipyridine)cobalt(III) trichloride tetrahydrate

CAS number:
19488-82-5

Properties:
E02+/3+(H2O): 0.33 V vs NHE
MW: 705.91 g/mol

Reference:
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2016, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C6CP00264A

Additional information:
For usage in water-based DSSC, the Cobalt-complexes DN-C15 to DN-C18 can be combined with the dye DN-F05M.
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DN-C17

Co(phen)3Cl2 · 2 H2O



Full name:
Tris(1,10-phenanthroline)cobalt(II) dichloride dihydrate

CAS number:
15136-98-8

Properties:
E02+/3+(H2O): 0.33 V vs NHE
MW: 706.49 g/mol

Reference:
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2016, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C6CP00264A

Additional information:
For usage in water-based DSSC, the Cobalt-complexes DN-C15 to DN-C18 can be combined with the dye DN-F05M.
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DN-C18

Co(phen)3Cl3 · 5 H2O



Full name:
Tris(1,10-phenanthroline)cobalt(III) trichloride pentahydrate

CAS number:
15406-83-4

Properties:
E02+/3+(H2O): 0.33 V vs NHE
MW: 795.99 g/mol

Reference:
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2016, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C6CP00264A

Additional information:
For usage in water-based DSSC, the Cobalt-complexes DN-C15 to DN-C18 can be combined with the dye DN-F05M.
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DN-C19

Co(bpy-pz)2Cl2 · 2 H2O



Full name:
bis(6-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2,2'-bipyridine)cobalt(II) dichloride dihydrate

Properties:
E02+/3+(H2O): 0.60 V vs NHE
MW: 610.37 g/mol

Reference:
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2016, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C6CP00264A

Application example:
In water-based DSSCs, the DN-C19/C20 redox couple combined with the dye DN-F05M have reached power conversion efficiencies of up to 5.7%. The higher redox potential of C19/C20 compared to C15/C16 and C17/C18 enables an increase in the device's photovoltage.
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DN-C20

Co(bpy-pz)2Cl3 · 2 H2O



Full name:
bis(6-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2,2'-bipyridine)cobalt(III) trichloride dihydrate

Properties:
E02+/3+(H2O): 0.60 V vs NHE
MW: 645.82 g/mol

Reference:
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2016, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C6CP00264A

Application example:
In water-based DSSCs, the DN-C19/C20 redox couple combined with the dye DN-F05M have reached power conversion efficiencies of up to 5.7%. The higher redox potential of C19/C20 compared to C15/C16 and C17/C18 enables an increase in the device's photovoltage.
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Cobalt-complexes for increased open circuit voltage

DN-C07

Co(phen)3(PF6)2



Full name:
Tris(1,10-phenanthroline)cobalt bis(hexafluorophosphate)

CAS number:
31876-74-1

Properties:
E02+/3+: 0.61 V vs NHE
MW: 889.49 g/mol

Reference:
Feldt et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2013, 15, 7087-7097
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DN-C08

Co(phen)3(PF6)3



Full name:
Tris(1,10-phenanthroline)cobalt tris(hexafluorophosphate)

CAS number:
28277-59-0

Properties:
E02+/3+: 0.61 V vs NHE
MW: 1034.46 g/mol

Reference:
Feldt et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2013, 15, 7087-7097
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DN-C09

Co(bpy-pz)2(PF6)2



Full name:
Bis(6-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2,2'-bipyridine)cobalt bis(hexafluorophosphate)

CAS number:
312322-08-0

Properties:
E02+/3+: 0.86 V vs NHE
MW: 793.36 g/mol

Reference:
  • Feldt et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2013, 15, 7087-7097
  • Yum, J.-H. et al. Nat. Commun. 3:631 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms1655 (2012)
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DN-C10

Co(bpy-pz)2(PF6)3



Full name:
Bis(6-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2,2'-bipyridine)cobalt tris(hexafluorophosphate)

CAS number:
1346417-60-4

Properties:
E02+/3+: 0.86 V vs NHE
MW: 938.33 g/mol

Reference:
  • Feldt et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2013, 15, 7087-7097
  • Yum, J.-H. et al. Nat. Commun. 3:631 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms1655 (2012)
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Original Cobalt-complexes

DN-C01

Co(bpy)3(PF6)2



Full name:
Tris-(2,2’-bipyridine)cobalt(II) di(hexafluorophosphate)

CAS number:
79151-78-3

Properties:
MW: 817.13 g/mol

Reference:
Feldt et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2010, 132, 16714
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DN-C02

Co(bpy)3(PF6)3


Full name:
Tris-(2,2’-bipyridine)cobalt(III) tri(hexafluorophosphate)

CAS number:
28277-53-4

Properties:
MW: 962.37 g/mol

Reference:
Feldt et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2010, 132, 16714
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DN-C03

Co(bpy)3 (B(CN)4)2



Full name:
Tris-(2,2’-bipyridine)cobalt(II) di(tetracyanoborate)

CAS number:
1350928-19-6

Properties:
MW: 757.25 g/mol

Reference:
Yella, A. et al., Science 2011, 334, 629
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DN-C04

Co(bpy)3 (B(CN)4)3



Full name:
Tris-(2,2’-bipyridine)cobalt(III) tri(tetracyanoborate)

CAS number:
1350928-20-9

Properties:
MW: 872.13 g/mol

Reference:
Yella, A. et al., Science 2011, 334, 629
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DN-C13

Co(bpy)3 (TFSI)2



Full name:
Tris-(2,2'-bipyridine)cobalt(II)di(bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide)

CAS number:
1353745-90-0

Properties:
E02+/3+: 0.57 V vs NHE
MW: 1087.8 g/mol

Reference:
Yella, A., et al. Chem. Mater., 2013, 25 (13), pp 2733-2739 DOI: 10.1021/cm401593b
Kavan, L., et al. Electrochimica Acta, 2016, vol. 195, p. 34-42 DOI: 10.1016/j.electacta.2016.02.097
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DN-C14

Co(bpy)3 (TFSI)3



Full name:
Tris-(2,2'-bipyridine)cobalt(III)tri(bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide)

CAS number:
1353745-91-1

Properties:
E02+/3+: 0.57 V vs NHE
MW: 1367.9 g/mol

Reference:
Yella, A., et al. Chem. Mater., 2013, 25 (13), pp 2733-2739 DOI: 10.1021/cm401593b
Kavan, L., et al. Electrochimica Acta, 2016, vol. 195, p. 34-42 DOI: 10.1016/j.electacta.2016.02.097

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