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Home > Materials > Hole transport materials

Hole transport materials

Hole transport materials (HTM's) are used in perovskite solar cells. However, they can also be used to replace the liquid electrolyte of conventional DSSC's to make solid-state DSSC devices. For both of these applications, Spiro-OMeTAD has traditionally been the HTM of choice, due to its superior performance. The Dyenamo HTMs DN-X02 and DN-X03 hav been used to realize perovskite solar cells with efficiencies as high as 19.8 %. In addition, they are offered at very competitive prices. They are thus the natural reference materials for perovskite solar cell research and industrialization. For larger amounts than the ones displayed, please contact us.


DN-X07

X55

Description:
A high-performance spiro[fluorene-9,9'-xanthene] (SFX) based hole transport material with demonstrated device efficiencies of up to 20.8% in perovskite solar cells.

Full name:
N2,N7-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)-N2,N7-di(spiro[fluorene-9,9'-xanthen]-2-yl)spiro[fluorene-9,9'-xanthene]-2,7-diamine

Typical properties:
Eox (DCM) = 0.73 V vs NHE
Hole conductivity = 9.03*10-4 S cm-1
λabs (DCM) = 406 nm
MW = 1235.45 g/mol

References:
B. Xu, et al., Chem, 2017, DOI: 10.1016/j.chempr.2017.03.011

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DN-X06

X44

Description:
A dopant-free ionic hole transport material suitable for use in perovskite solar cells. By avoiding dopants good stability and improved reproducibility can be achieved. Through the introduction of quarternary amine functional groups permanent charges are incorporated into the material. DN-X06 displays an order of magnitude higher hole conductivity compared to undoped spiro-OMeTAD.

Full name:
3,3'-(2,7-bis(bis(4-methoxyphenyl)amino)-9H-fluorene-9,9-diyl)bis(N-ethyl-N,N-dimethylpropan-1-aminium) bis[bis((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)amide]

Typical properties:
Eox (DCM) = 0.62 V vs NHE
Hole conductivity = 9.03*10-4 S cm-1
λabs (DCM) = 381 nm
MW = 1409.44 g/mol

References:
J. Zhang, et al., Adv. Energy Mater, 2017, DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201602736

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DN-X05

Poly(triaryl amine)



Description:
Description: p-Type polymeric semiconductor used in perovskite solar cells, OLEDs and other organic electronics applications. In perovskite solar cells it has been used with great success, enabling efficiencies in excess of 20%. More recently, it has also been shown that PTAA plays an important part in making highly stable perovskite solar cells by preventing metal atoms from the electrode from diffusing into the perovskite.

Full name:
Poly[bis(4-phenyl)(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)amine]

Alternative name:
PTAA

CAS number:
1333317-99-9

Typical properties:
Mn = 22000 g/mol

References:
Michael Saliba, et al., Science, 2016, DOI: 10.1126/science.aah5557
Woon Seok Yang, et al., Science, 2015, DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa9272
Jin Hyuck Heo, et al., Nature Photonics, 2013, DOI: 10.1038/nphoton.2013.80





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DN-X03

X59

Description:
X59 is a high-performance hole transport material that has proven itself as an economical replacement for spiro-OMeTAD in perovskite solar cells with a demonstrated efficiency of 19.8%.

Full name:
N2,N2,N7,N7-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)spiro[fluorene-9,9'-xanthene]-2,7-diamine

CAS number:
2095034-97-0

Typical properties:
Eox (DCM) = 0.65 V vs. NHE
Hole mobility = 5.5*10-5 cm2 V-1 s-1
λabs (PhMe) = 387 nm
MW = 786.93 g/mol

References:
Dongqin Bi, et al., Nano Energy, 2016, DOI: 10.1016/j.nanoen.2016.03.020

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DN-X02

X60

Description:
X60 is a high-performance hole transport material highly that has proven itself as an economical replacement for spiro-OMeTAD in both perovskite and solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with demonstrated efficiencies of 19.8 and 7.3% respectively.

Full name:
octakis(4-methoxyphenyl)spiro[fluorene-9,9'-xanthene]-2,2',7,7'-tetraamine)

CAS number:
1887794-22-0

Typical properties:
Eox (DCM) = 0.65 V vs. NHE
Hole mobility = 1.9*10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1
λabs (PhMe) = 389 nm
MW = 1241.45 g/mol

References:
Bo Xu, et al., Energy & Environmental Science, 2016, DOI: 10.1039/C6EE00056H



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DN-X04

tris(4-methoxyphenyl)amine

Description:
Tris(4-methoxyphenyl)amine is a small and versatile redox-active molecule which can be employed in both liquid and solid-state solar cells. In DSSCs with liquid electrolyte it can be used together with a metal-based redox couple to enable exceptionally fast dye regeneration, giving easy access to >10% efficiencies. In solid-state solar cells it may be used as a low cost hole-transporting material, either by itself or combined with another material such as P3HT.

Alternative name:
TPAA, TAA, tris(p-anisyl)amine, tris(para-anisyl)amine

CAS number:
13050-56-1

Typical properties:
Eox (DCM) = 0.85 V vs. NHE
MW = 335.40 g/mol

References:
J. Phys. Chem. C 2012, 116, 18070-18078, DOI: 10.1021/jp3052449
Chem. Mater., 2001, 13 (11), pp 4105-4111, DOI: 10.1021/cm010281p
Nature Commun. 7 (2016) 13934, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms13934





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DN-X01

X51

Description:
X51 is a high-performance carbazole-based hole transport material (HTM) suitable for use in DSSC's and perovskite solar cells. In combination with a metal-free dye such as DN-F05, device power conversion efficiencies exceeding that of Spiro-OMeTAD has been achieved.

Full name:
9,9'-([1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diyl)bis(N3,N3,N6,N6-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)-9H-carbazole-3,6-diamine)

CAS number:
1630723-99-7

Typical properties:
Eox (DCM) = 0.64 V vs. NHE
Hole mobility = 1.51*10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1
λabs (DCM) = 365 nm, 307 nm (max)
MW = 1393.65 g/mol
Reorganization energy = 378 meV (calc.)

References:








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DN-EVH01

Eversolar® Spiro-OMeTAD

Description:
Spiro-OMeTAD is the reference hole-transport material for solid-state DSSCs and Perovskite solar cells.

Full name:
2,2',7,7'-Tetrakis[N,N-di(4-methoxyphenyl)amino]-9,9'-spirobifluorene

CAS number:
207739-72-8

Typical properties:
λabs.max (DCM) = 385 nm
MW = 1225.43 g/mol

Additional information:
Dyenamo is European distributor of Everlight's hole transport materials.

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