Dyenamo launches start-up kits for manufacturing perovskite solar cells and low-power DSSC
Research on perovskite solar cells and industrialization of dye-sensitized solar cells for low-power applications are booming. There is a massive interest to enter both fields. However, it is well-known that such chemistry-based solar cell technologies are difficult in practice and that it takes a lot of experience to obtain reproducible well-performing devices. In addition, several expensive pieces of equipment, such as the glovebox for perovskite devices, may create an entrance hurdle to the field for many laboratories. In our continuous ambition to pave the way for researchers and companies, Dyenamo has developed economic start-up kits for perovskite and low-power dye sensitized solar cells, respectively. These kits include all necessary pieces of equipment and materials and a thorough manual for device fabrication. For more details, click here.
The second Dyenamo DSSC conference - confirmation of a new phase for dye-sensitized solar cells
Two years after the memorable "DSSC strikes back" conference, Dyenamo re-gathered students, scientists, companies and engineers from around the world to meet, exchange ideas and their latest DSSC findings. Collectively, the 106 participants from 20 countries made a firm statement that DSSC has entered a new phase where efficiency-records are broken for all device types (opaque, "zombie", see-through, solid-state etc. at both indoor and solar radiation) and that the dream-target of 15 % at full sun now is within reach, and that technology commercialisation is rapidly advancing for IoT and consumer electronics applications (e.g. various sensors, electronic curtains, headphones, solar tables) confirmed by the involvement of high-tech investors (e.g. Softbank) and end-users (e.g. JBL).
We are grateful and humble for all the endorsement for the arrangement. Positive and engaged participants made it very easy to organize things. Thank you to everyone involved! Below please find some memories from the event (photo Louise Seregard).
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The first European consortium on carbon-based perovskite cells
Dyenamo is happy to be the industrial chemistry-partner in the project "Carbon Based Perovskite Solar Cells with Uni-Directional Electron Bulk Transport: in the quest of a Short Time to Market" (UNIQUE). It is the first European consortium dedicated to carbon-based perovskite solar devices with the ambituous target to develop a competitive new-generation photovoltaic technology, characterized by small investment cost and unique posibilities for local production. The three-year project gathers nine partner from seven European countries. The Swiss module-manufacturing company Solaronix is supported by Dyenamo, two research institutes (Fraunhofer ISE and CEA, France) and five academic groups (EPFL in Switzerland, CHOSE-University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, University of Savoie Mont Blanc, Swansea University and University of Madrid).
Dyenamo launches high-purity MAI with 1500 ppm phosphite
In our ongoing efforts to pave the way for perovskite researchers and industry, we launch a special grade of methylammonium iodide (MAI) containing a controlled amount of phosphite as an additive. Phosphites play an essential role in the crystallization of methylammonium lead iodide perovskites by acting as nucleation centers which, at low concentrations, aid in the formation of high quality films with large grain sizes. Control over the phosphite content is crucial for both the reproducibility and performance of MAPI-based devices. Custom phosphite concentrations are available on demand, please contact us for more information.
Conference program published online
The program for the 2nd Dyenamo DSSC conference can now be found online. It contains 31 oral and 28 poster contributions from prestigious academic and industrial DSSC experts from all over the world.
Dyenamo takes the perovskite precursor salts to the next purity level
We are proud to introduce the market-leading purity grade 99.999 % (trace elements basis) for our standard perovskite precursor salts MAI, FAI, MABr and FABr. These materials will be added to our portfolio of high-purity perovskite salts whose shelf lives have been dramatically improved by a new external barrier ensuring minimum water penetration.
Promotion: 10 % discount and immediate delivery for glass cutters and screen printers
As requested by our customers, we now have a number of glass cutters (DN-HM14) and manual screen printers (DN-HM02) for immediate delivery. In addition, we offer a 10 % discount on the two products for orders placed before 31 May 2019. The immediate delivery is valid as long as the stock remains.
DSSC conference in Sweden 14-15 October 2019
We hereby announce that the arrangement of the 2nd Dyenamo DSSC conference "DSSC strikes on" has been changed. It will be held in Uppsala, Sweden, 14-15 October 2019. More information will be available on our web within shortly.
Dyenamo materials in perovskite/silicon tandem cells with 25.5 % efficiency
We are happy to congratulate researchers at the Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, who have obtained a perovskite-silicon tandem solar cell efficiency of 25.5 % (Jost et al., Energy Environ. Sci.,2018, 11, 3511). Moreover, we proudly conclude that perovskite materials from Dyenamo were used in their work. This is yet another confirmation that our efforts on realizing high-purity perovskite salts contribute to advances in perovskite devices.
Dyenamo launches new p-type dopant for hole transport materials in perovskite solar cells
Dyenamo continues to offer the latest materials in the field of perovskite solar cells. Our new addition, Zn(TFSI)2, is a highly effective p-type dopant for hole transport materials in perovskite solar cells. Recent findings show substantial benefits over the commonly used LiTFSI in terms of device performance and stability when Zn(TFSI)2 is used in conjunction with Spiro-MeOTAD (DOI: 10.1039/c8ee01500g). For more information, or to order, please visit the product description.
Dyenamo launches new hole transport material: X62 (DN-X08)
Dyenamo offers the latest findings in chemistry-based solar energy conversion. At the present, we are very active in hole conductors, one of the key components in perovskite solar cells. As a consequence, we now launch the product DN-X08, also known as X62. Collectively, our hole conductor selection now comprise 9 products. X62 is a spiro[dibenzo[c,h]xanthene-7,9′-fluorene] (SDBXF) based material that has been used to obtain perovskite solar cell device efficiencies of up to 15.9 % without dopants (DOI: 10.1016/10.1039/c8cc04026e). For more information, please visit the product description.
DSSC strikes on - the 2nd Dyenamo DSSC conference
We are happy to announce that the 2nd Dyenamo conference "DSSC strikes on" (sequel to "DSSC strikes back" held in Uppsala October 2017) will be arranged in the Shandong province in China March 27-29, 2019. We are very pleased to partner with the Chinese Academy of Science who will host the arrangement, coordinated by Dr Hujiang Shen. Detailed conference information will be available on the Dyenamo web within shortly. Until then, any questions can be addressed to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Dyenamo introduces three new products
Despite the seemingly never ending heat wave in Sweden, we have been working hard to expand our product range.
- F4TCNQ: Molecular p-type dopant. Recently demonstrated to work as a dopant for perovskite (MAPI), enabling the fabrication of highly efficient HTL-free perovskite solar cells.
- High-sensitivity irradiance measurement kit: Designed to solve the challenge of determining power conversion efficiencies (PCE) under artificial lighting conditions, this kit allows you to conveniently determine the radiant flux (Pin in PCE calculation) that your device is exposed to. Thanks to its high sensitivity it can be used even under low light conditions (<100 lux).
- Guanidinium iodide: Expanding our range of high-quality perovskite precursors, we’re now also producing guanidinium iodide. A particularly interesting application for this material are the MA1–xGuaxPbI3 perovskites which have been demonstrated to show considerably improved stability.
Dyenamo launches new organic dye: WS-72 (DN-F18)
WS-72 is a dye that addresses a long-standing limitation of metal-free sensitizers for DSSCs: large electron injection voltage loss. Additionally, it efficiently suppresses interfacial recombination, which makes it highly compatible with both Co- and Cu-based redox mediators and thereby enabling high cell voltages (up to 1.1 V) and excellent performance. Together with Cu(tmby)2 solid-state device efficiencies of up to 11.7% under AM1.5G conditions have been demonstrated.
New efficiency records for Cu-based DSSC using Dyenamo chemistry
Researchers at EPFL have followed up their breakthrough paper on Cu-based DSSC technologies (Freitag et al., Nature Photonics | DOI: 10.1038/nphoton.2017.60) resulting in efficiencies >13 % at 1000 W/m2 and power conversion efficiency of 32% under 1000 Lux artificial indoor light (Cao et al., Joule (2018), DOI: 10.1016/j.joule.2018.03.017). The results are important as they confirm that Cu-based DSSC is the best performing indoor light harvesting system of all PV technologies, and demonstrate the potential of the Cu-chemistry for outdoor applications. The key dyes and electrolyte redox mediators are available among our standard dyes and Cu-materials.
Dyenamo launches potentiostat-based IV-measurement kit – the ideal tool for low-current applications
DN-AE05 is our cost-efficient and highly accurate IV-measurement solution designed for small solar cells (<1 cm2) and low-power (indoor ambient light) applications. As the product is based upon a computer-controlled potentiostat , it can also be used for various low-current
(<15 mA) electrochemical applications.
Dyenamo launches low-temperature carbon paste for hole-conductor-free perovskite solar cells
After intense work, we are pleased to announce the new carbon paste DN-CP01. This paste can be applied directly on the perovskite layer and cured at around 100 °C. As the carbon paste makes a great connection to the perovskite layer, there is no need for an intermediate hole conductor layer. Consequently, it opens up for novel process methods and concepts for perovskite solar cells and modules. This includes flexible substrates since the cured carbon layers can be bent. The functionality has been verified by our partner KTH (Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm) that has reached 15% perovskite solar cell efficiency with the carbon paste without using an intermediate hole conductor (publication in progress). The carbon paste is primarily applied by doctor-blading but it is also suitable for screen-printing.
Dyenamo launches two new ligands for metal complexation
The product line Building blocks aims at offering our customers a shortcut to rapid and cost-efficient assembly of advanced molecules of their own design. Due to popular demand, we now broaden this product line with the two ligands bpyPY4 (DN-BB05) and tmby (DN-BB06). Both are versatile multidentate ligands that can be used together with many different metal ions. Examples from litterature include the use of Co(II)/(III) bpyPY4 complexes for improved device stability (DOI: 10.1002/anie.201300070) and the use of Cu(I)/(II) tmby complexes as redox couples in DSSCs (DOI: 10.1021/jacs.6b10721).
Dyenamo intensifies the collaboration with Elixir Technologies
Dyenamo is happy to announce that we have taken the next step in our successful collaboration with Elixir Technologies. From November 2017, Dyenamo is exclusive distributor for Elixir's manufacturing equipment for dye-sensitized and perovskite solar cells outside India. Consequently, we can now offer a broad set of standard products, such as equipment for device encapsulation, screen printing, electrode sintering, spin coating, glass cutting, hole drilling and spray pyrolysis. We also offer custom-made solutions for process steps such as dye application, electrolyte filling, pick and place positioning equipment and dispensing solutions for e.g. adhesives or current collectors.
Dyenamo launches high-performance TiO2 paste
We are happy to introduce the screen-printable TiO2 paste DN-EP03. It is available in any amounts and especially suitable for opaque DSSC (in combination with a scattering layer) and Co- or Cu-based electrolytes, semi-transparent DSSC (transparent layer up towards 10 µm thickness), low-power DSSC and perovskite solar cells (homogenous layers < 500 nm).
We are also pleased to announce that we offer three water-based TiO2 pastes as temporary offers.
DSSC strikes back - a great experience and success!
The Dyenamo conference "DSSC strikes back" gathered 115 participants from 18 nations in Uppsala, Sweden 16-17 October. The two days were very intense with 31 oral presentations and 32 posters. It is obviously not appropriate to review your own arrangement. Nevertheless, we dare announcing that the conference was a great success. This was confirmed by the endorsements we have received during and after the conference. Here are a few examples of such written comments:
"DSSC strikes back was a milestone in my professional life"
"This was one of the most memorable business trips in my life."
"I would like to congratulate all of you to the very successful conference: It was really very impressive!"
"I would like to thank you again for the well organized and beneficial conference. It was a lot of fun and informative, and as discussed, we are waiting for version number 2."
"Thank you very much for the wonderful DSSC conference you have organized. Especially I appreciate a perfect mix of talks from academic groups and companies."
"Congratulations again for a great conference!"
"Congratulations for the conference, the Dyenamo team truly did a great job with the organization."
"This was the right initiative at the right time by the right people."
We want to thank all the participants for creating such a nice event.
We are pleased to announce that Sonja Prideaux has joined Dyenamo. Sonja is well-known to the Dyenamo team, as she was helping us out in parallel to her studies in chemical engineering at KTH in Stockholm. After completing her studies in the summer of 2017, she immediately joined Dyenamo. Many of you know her as conference coordinator for "DSSC strikes back". However, this was a temporary sidetrack from her engagement as Production Scientist and Sales Representative at Dyenamo.
We are also pleased to announce that Dr. Qian Gao has been appointed Sales Manager of China.
Dyenamo launches new hole transport material: X55 (DN-X07)
We now launch our latest high-performance hole conductor DN-X07, also known as X55. This spiro[fluorene-9,9'-xanthene] (SFX) based material has been used to obtain perovskite solar cell device efficiencies of up to 20.8% by KTH, Stockholm in collaboration with EPFL, Switzerland (DOI: 10.1016/j.chempr.2017.03.011). For more information, please visit the product description.
Great response to Dyenamo DSSC conference in Uppsala 16-17 October 2017
Organizing a DSSC conference was not an obvious decision for Dyenamo. It was triggered by the fact that we sensed an upcoming DSSC trend in combination with the lack of an active forum to meet. We can now conclude that this was a correct analysis and we are pleasantly surprised by the fact that we have received >60 abstracts. We could thus easily have organized a longer conference.
We are pleased to announce three additional keynote speakers; Md. K. Nazeeruddin from EPFL, Peng Wang from Zhejiang University and Kyusoon Shin from Dongjin Semichem.
As a result of the high numbers of abstracts, there was a sharp cut for oral presentations. However, it also means that there will be an excellent poster session. The oral and poster contributions have been selected and the responsible people have been informed. The program will be presented on this website within shortly. Please remember to register before 15 August as the fee thereafter will be increased.
We are also very pleased to see that the registrations for the Dyenamo training and coaching day are coming in.
Low-power DSSC device with 28.9 % conversion efficiency at 1000 Lux using Dyenamo chemistry
Researchers at EPFL have obtained highly impressive power output values at indoor low-light levels indicating that Cu-based DSSC is the best performing indoor light harvesting system of all PV technologies (Freitag et al., Nature Photonics | DOI: 10.1038/nphoton.2017.60). This opens for a massive market related to IoT (Internet of Things) applications. Dyenamo is happy to have contributed to this pioneering work. The key dyes and electrolyte redox mediators are available among our standard dyes and Cu-materials.
Dyenamo product drastically improves cell efficiency
In research led by Gerrit Boschloo it was found that addition of the small electron donor DN-X04 (TPAA) to a standard cobalt-based electrolyte can lead to a large improvement of the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells. This work was recently published in Nature Communications (Nature Commun. 7 (2016) 13934 | DOI: 10.1038/ncomms13934 ).
Dyenamo signs mutual distribution agreement with Everlight
We are happy to annouce that Dyenamo and Everlight Chemical have signed mutual distributors agreements. This means that Dyenamo will be European distributor for Everlight's DSSC chemicals, including the hole-conductor Eversolar® Spiro-OMeTAD, and that Everlight will be Asian distributor (India excluded) for Dyenamo DSSC-materials. This will open new market channels and broaden the selection of DSSC products for both companies.
Five new Cu-complexes for high-performance DSSC electrolytes
The development of Cu-based electrolytes for DSSCs is rapidly progressing. As part of Dyenamo's mission to give you access to cutting edge R&D materials, we are happy to present five new complexes. Thanks to the "dmby" and "tmby" ligands, a wider range of redox potentials are now available. Please check our product line for Cu-complexes for more details. The new complexes are available under the product-codes DN-Cu08 to DN-Cu12.
Dyenamo launches portable economic measurement system
DN-AE04 is a computer-controlled electronic load especially designed for IV-characterization of high current devices such as solar cells, fuel cells and batteries. The portable product comes in three different configurations, the most powerful configuration allowing currents of up to 20 A. For more details, click here.
Tailor-made training in Stockholm
The past few weeks, Dyenamo has been hosting an Indonesian scientific delegation in Stockholm. The scientists from the Indonesian Institute of Science (LIPI), Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Gajah Mada University (UGM) and Sebelas Maret State University (UNS) were trained/coached to strengthen their R&D activities on dye-sensitized and perovskite solar cells. Dyenamo provided a tailor-made program including lectures by the Dyenamo staff and co-founders, practical demonstrations and workshops as well as visits to the Dyenamo facilities.
Indonesian scientific delegation and Dyenamo staff and lecturers from left to right:
Putri Nur Anggraini (LIPI), Shobih (LIPI), Dr. Rachmat Hidayat (ITB), Dr. Kuwat Triyana (UGM), Lia Muliani Pranoto (LIPI), Erik Gabrielsson, Sonja Prideaux, Anders Hagfeldt, Henrik Pettersson, Qian Gao, Dr. Natalita Maulani Nursam (LIPI), Erlyta Septa Rosa (LIPI), Lilis Retnaningsih (LIPI), Dr. Rike Yudianti (LIPI), Jojo Hidayat (LIPI), Dr. Agus Supriyanto (UNS), and Dr. Goib Wiranto (LIPI)
PTAA for perovskite cells
In last week's Science paper (DOI: 10.1126/science.aah5557), EPFL in Switzerland has shown that PTAA (Poly[bis(4-phenyl)(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)amine]) plays an important part in making highly stable perovskite solar cells by preventing metal atoms from the electrode from diffusing into the perovskite. Polymer-coated cells maintained 95% of their initial performance at 85°C for 500 hours under full solar illumination and maximum power point tracking. Dyenamo's long-chained PTAA molecular weight (22000 g/mol) is optimized for the high conductivity required in perovskite solar cells.
Dyenamo agreement with Elixir Technologies for Indian market
Dyenamo is happy to announce that our collaboration with Elixir Technologies has been formalized. As a result of this, Elixir takes care of the Dyenamo business in India. The picture shows the CEOs of the two companies; Rao Raghuvamshi and Henrik Pettersson, during their meeting in Stockholm.
Dyenamo co-founder Anders Hagfeldt receives prestigious award
We are proud to announce that Anders Hagfeldt has been awarded with the "Björkenska Prize" from Uppsala University. This is the finest Prize at the University and has been annually awarded since 1902.
Record-efficiency for Cu-based DSSC
Dyenamo has in collaboration with the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) developed a new Cu-based redox-couple, which has been used to obtain cell efficiencies up to 10 % (DOI: 10.1039/C6TA06782D). A key development is that the new complex features an innovative bis(2-pyridyl)ethane ligand in place of the nearly ubiquitous dimethylphenanthroline (dmp) ligand. These materials are now available in our product line for Cu-complexes.
Dyenamo launches multifunctional holder for photo-electrochemistry
Dyenamo's multifunctional photo-electrochemistry (PEC) H-type (HT) tandem-holder has been designed to improve and facilitate your solar fuel experiments. However, the holder can also be used for other experiments, such as spectro-electrochemistry, electrolysis and light-driven organic synthesis. For more information, visit our new section here.
Prolongation of temporary offers
As a result of our successful HOPV conference campaign, we prolong the promotion on a set of material-components for perovskite and dye-sensitized solar cells. The temporary offers are valid until 30 September 2016 and can be found on our temporary offers page.
Dyenamo launches products for improved perovskite solar cell stability
Our two novel products DN-P12 (Methylammonium thiocyanate) and DN-P13 (Formadinium thiocyanate) can be used as additives/dopants to the perovskite composition for improved device stabilty.
Successful campaign results in reduced prices on persovskite products
As a result of our successful campaign on perovskite precursors, the temporary offer prices now turn into our standard ones. Please see the present perovskite products and prices on our perovskite solar cells page.
New temporary offers
Starting at the HOPV conference in Wales on the 28th of June to the 1st of July 2016, Dyenamo promotes a set of material-components for perovskite and dye-sensitized solar cells. The temporary offers are valid until 31 July 2016 and can be found on our temporary offers page.
Dyenamo launches improved blue DSSC dye "Dyenamo Blue 2016"
We have developed an improved version of the blue dye DN-F10 (Dyenamo blue). The novel blue dye DN-F10M (Dyenamo Blue 2016) is more cost-efficient in production and thus offered at a lower price and in larger quantities than DN-F10. For further description of the dye, please visit the product description.
Meet us at HOPV16
Dyenamo will have an exhibition stand at the HOPV16 conference (28 June-1 July 2016) in Swansea, Wales. We hope you will use this opportunity to learn more about our activities.
Dyenamo launches a second low-cost high-performance hole-conductor
We are pleased to launch the hole-conductor DN-X03, also known as X59. It is a modification of our hole-conductor DN-X02 (X60), designed for even lower manufacturing costs. The material has been used to obtain solar cell efficiencies around 20 % (Dongqin Bi, et al., DOI:10.1016/j.nanoen.2016.03.020), i.e. as for DN-X02, this is a hole-conductor material competitive to Spiro-OMeTAD in device performance. Dyenamo sells the material in three batch sizes; 100 g for 52 900 SEK, 10 g for 8 900 SEK and 1 g for 1 700 SEK, all prices excluding VAT and transport. Larger batches can be obtained on demand. More information at Hole Transport Materials.
We are pleased to announce that Dr. Qian Gao has been engaged as Production Scientist in Dyenamo. Qian has been working within the Centre for Molecular Devices for several years and is thus well-known to the Dyenamo team.
Record-values for water-based DSSC using Dyenamo-materials
Researchers at Uppsala University (Ellis, et al., DOI: 10.1039/C6CP00264A) have obtained 5.7% efficiencies at full sun with aqueous DSSC using Dyenamo's new water-based chemistry, i.e. an electrolyte based on the cobalt-salts DN-C19 and DN-C20 in combination with the organic dye DN-F05M. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest efficiency to date for aqueous DSSC.
Dyenamo launches water-soluble Cobalt-complexes and organic dyes for aqueous DSSC
Our six new Cobalt-complexes are water-soluble and suitable for e.g. high-performance water-based DSSC electrolytes. For further information, please visit the product descriptions. Our novel organic dyes DN-F05M and DN-F04M are modifications of the dyes DN-F05 (D35cpdt/LEG4) and DN-F04 (D35) for efficient use in aqueous DSSC.
New building block products
We have introduced new building block products for efficient construction of dyes, solar fuel materials, catalysts etc. For further information, please visit the product descriptions.
Dyenamo launches low-cost high-performance hole-conductor
We are pleased to launch the hole-conductor DN-X02, also known as X60. It has been developed by the research group of Prof. Licheng Sun at KTH in Stockholm and implemented in top-effiiency devices by the groups of Profs. Anders Hagfeldt and Michael Grätzel at EPFL. The material has been used to obtain solar cell efficiencies around 20 % (DOI: 10.1039/C6EE00056H), i.e. this is a hole-conductor material that is competitive to Spiro-OMeTAD in device performance. Dyenamo sells the material in three batch sizes; 100 g for 61 900 SEK, 10 g for 9 900 SEK and 1 g for 1 900 SEK, all prices excluding VAT and transport. Larger batches can be obtained on demand. More information at Hole Transport Materials.
Dyenamo laboratories visited by the Swedish Minister of International Development Cooperation
Friday 22 January, the Dyenamo laboratories were visited by Mrs Isabella Lövin, the Swedish Minister of International Development Cooperation, and her delegation. After a company presentation, the delegation was guided through our facilities.
Dyenamo DN-P04 used in world-record perovskite solar cells
Dyenamo's Co-dopant DN-P04 (FK209) was used in the perovskite solar cell made by EPFL that in certified measurements delivered 21.02 % efficiency, i.e. a new efficiency world-record for the technology.
Dyenamo laboratories visited by the President of Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
Last Friday, the Dyenamo laboratories were visited by the President of Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, H.E. Dr Mohammad Ashraf Ghani, and his delegation. After a company presentation by our CEO, Henrik Pettersson, the delegation was guided through our facilities by our CTO, Erik Gabrielsson.
Dyenamo DN-F05 used in high-efficiency cells
Dyenamo´s dye LEG4 (D35cpdt, DN-F05) has been used as co-sensitizer in DCCS devices with reported efficiency values exceeding 14%, see K. Kakiage, Y. Aoyama, T. Yano, K. Oya, J. Fujisawa and M. Hanaya, Chem. Commun., 2015, DOI: 10.1039/C5CC06759F. For the record efficiency, Co-phenanthroline complexes were used as redox mediator, see Dyenamo products DN-C07 and DN-C08 .
Dyenamo yellow improves perovskite solar cells
Doctorbladed perovskite solar cells on conducting polymer substrate showed a marked increase in performance, when a small organic dye molecule was added to the polymer solution (Y. Deng et al., Energy Environ. Sci., 2015, 8, 1544). The molecule in question is
(z)-2-cyano-3-(4-(diphenylamino)phenyl)acrylic acid), also known as L0 or Dyenamo yellow (DN-F01). The effect was attributed to the improved wetting of the perovskite solution on the polymer layer: Dyenamo yellow makes the polymer layer more polar.