Dyenamo your R&D partner for nanoscale solar energy converters

» Latest Dyenamo blog-post:
    "Why Dyenamo's carbon paste DN-CP01 can influence the entire perovskite field"


» Latest Dyenamo news:
    "DSSC strikes on - the 2nd Dyenamo DSSC conference"

Home > Materials > Organic sensitizing dyes

Organic sensitizing dyes

The interest in organic sensitizing dyes for usage in DSSCs has been growing quickly the past few years. It was initiated for reasons such as non-limited feedstock, improved prerequisites for scalability, recycling issues, economy on a large-scale . This interest was strengthened after the CMD results from Feldt et al. in J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2010, 132 (46), pp 16714–16724, where organic dyes in combination with a cobalt polypyridine-based one-electron redox mediator improved the performance of liquid DSSC devices. The past few years, it has been shown that organic dyes can also provide stability advantages in relation to metal-organic dyes also in iodide/triiodide electrolyte systems. In addition, the possibility to realize well-performing DSSC dyes in different colors have further increased the interest for organic dyes. Dyenamo offers a number of organic broad-spectrum absorbing dyes, two organic infra-red absorbing dyes and one organic p-type dye. In order to obtain quotations, please proceed via "Select amount for quotation" in the product descriptions. For larger amounts than the ones displayed, please contact us.


Overview

Product code Name Approximate color* λabs,max (nm)
DN-F01 Dyenamo Yellow 378 (deprotonated)
DN-F13 Dyenamo Cloudberry Orange 451
DN-FP01 P1 468
DN-F04M D45 471 (EtOH)
DN-F03 D5 476
DN-F02 L1 404 (deprotonated)
DN-F04 Dyenamo Orange 500
DN-F05M D51 505 (EtOH)
DN-F05Y Y123 530
DN-F05 Dyenamo Red 541
DN-F18 WS-72 545 (DCM)
DN-F16 XY1 552 (DCM)
DN-F16B XY1b 552 (DCM)
DN-F08 JF419 554 (DCM)
DN-F09 MKA253 554 (DCM)
DN-F10 Dyenamo Blue 584 (DCM)
DN-F10M Dyenamo Blue 2016 584 (DCM)
DN-F11 DPP13 587 (THF)
DN-F17 R6 631 (DCM)
DN-F14 Dyenamo Mareel Blue 646 (EtOH)
DN-F12 YD2 648 (THF)
DN-F15 Dyenamo Transparent Green 703 (DMF)
DN-FI07 MK245 822

*The shown colors are just an illustration of the dye's appearance. The actual color of a device depends on various factors such as electrolyte, substrate, concentration of the dye and others.


DN-F-series: Broad-spectrum organic dyes

DN-FI-series: Near-infrared organic dyes

DN-FP series: P-type dye




DN-F-Series

DN-F18

WS-72



WS-72
Description:
WS-72 is a dye that addresses a long-standing limitation of metal-free sensitizers for DSSCs: large electron injection voltage loss. Additionally, it efficiently suppresses interfacial recombination, which makes it highly compatible with both Co- and Cu-based redox mediators and thereby enabling high cell voltages (up to 1.1 V) and excellent performance. Together with Cu(tmby)2 solid-state device efficiencies of up to 11.7% under AM1.5G conditions have been demonstrated.

Full name:
(E)-3-(6-(8-(4-(bis(2',4'-bis(hexyloxy)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)amino)phenyl)-2,3-bis(4-(hexyloxy)phenyl)quinoxalin-5-yl)-4,4-dihexyl-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophen-2-yl)-2-cyanoacrylic acid

Typical properties:
E0X (on TiO2 in MeCN) = 1.15 V vs NHE
λabs, max (DCM) = 545 nm (5.88*104 M-1 cm-1)
MW = 1718.45 g/mol

References:

Select amount for quotation



DN-F17

R6







R6
Description:
The R6 dye combines state-of-the-art DSSC performance with an aesthetically appealing sapphire blue color. Power conversion efficiencies of 12.6% under AM1.5G conditions have been demonstrated using Co(bpy)3 as the redox mediator (Click here to see our cobalt complexes). Its photostability has also been shown to be good with devices retaining >90% of their initial performance after 1000 h full sunlight soaking at 60 °C.

Full name:
4-(7-((15-(Bis(4-(hexyloxy)phenyl)amino)-9,9,19,19-tetrakis(4-hexylphenyl)-9,19-dihydrobenzo[1',10']phenanthro[3',4':4,5]thieno[3,2-b]benzo[1,10]phenanthro[3,4-d]thiophen-5-yl)ethynyl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazol-4-yl)benzoic acid

CAS number:
1980035-77-5

Typical properties:
E0X (THF) = 0.46 eV vs NHE
λabs (THF) = 631 nm (8.18*104 M-1 cm-1)
MW = 1803.53 g/mol

References:

Select amount for quotation



DN-F16

XY1







Description:
The XY1 dye (DN-F16) offers further improved red-response and extinction coefficient in relation to D35 (Dyenamo Orange) and Dyenamo Red/Y123 (DN-F05/DN-F05Y) which it builds upon. Due to its D-A-π-A structure it maintains a relatively high oxidation potential, which together with its long alkyl side chains enables high performance with even the most demanding redox mediators. In ssDSSCs device efficiencies of 6.7% have been demonstrated.

Full name:
(E)-3-(4-(6-(7-(4-(bis(2',4'-bis((2-ethylhexyl)oxy)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)amino)phenyl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazol-4-yl)-4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophen-2-yl)phenyl)-2-cyanoacrylic acid

CAS number:
1979161-98-2

Typical properties:
E0X (DCM) = 0.99 V vs NHE
λabs (DCM) = 552 nm (5.65*104 M-1 cm-1)
MW = 1616.38 g/mol

References:

Select amount for quotation



DN-F16B

XY1b




Description:
XY1b (DN-F16B) is a Dyenamo-developed variant of XY1 (DN-F16) designed to deliver the performance of XY1 at lower cost. By keeping the core XY1 structure intact, the photo- and electrochemical properties of the two dyes are practically identical.

Full name:
(E)-3-(4-(6-(7-(4-(bis(2',4'-dibutoxy-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)amino)phenyl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazol-4-yl)-4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophen-2-yl)phenyl)-2-cyanoacrylic acid

Typical properties:
MW = 1391.94 g/mol

References:

Select amount for quotation



DN-F10

Dyenamo Blue



Description:
Dyenamo's in-house developed non-published organic blue dye for well-performing esthetic DSSC devices.

Full name:
(E)-3-(5-(4-(4-(5-(4-(bis(2',4'-dibutoxy-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)amino)phenyl)thiophen-2-yl)-2,5-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-3,6-dioxo-2,3,5,6-tetrahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrol-1-yl)phenyl)furan-2-yl)-2-cyanoacrylic acid

Typical properties:
λ max (DCM) = 584 nm (49 000 M-1 cm-1)
λ max (TiO2) = 563 nm
MW = 1363.81 g/mol

Additional information
This product is covered by patents of EPFL, Switzerland. Please contact us or EPFL (http://tto.epfl.ch) for further information.

Select amount for quotation



DN-F10M

Dyenamo Blue 2016







Description:
Dyenamo's second in-house developed organic blue dye for high-performance esthetic DSSC devices. Dyenamo's experience of DN-F10 and DN-F10M is that they deliver very similar DSSC device performance and stability. However, out of these two dyes, DN-F10M is more cost-efficient in production and thus offered at a lower price and in larger quantities.

Full name:
(E)-3-(5-(4-(4-(5-(4-(bis(2',4'-dibutoxy-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)amino)phenyl)thiophen-2-yl)-2,5-dioctyl-3,6-dioxo-2,3,5,6-tetrahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrol-1-yl)phenyl)furan-2-yl)-2-cyanoacrylic acid

Typical properties:
λ max (DCM) = 584 nm (49 000 M-1 cm-1)
λ max (TiO2) = 563 nm
MW = 1363.81 g/mol

Additional information:
This product is covered by patents of EPFL, Switzerland. Please contact us or EPFL (http://tto.epfl.ch) for further information.
Select amount for quotation



DN-F04

Dyenamo Orange








Description:
During 2012 and 2013, Dyenamo Orange (D35) has been established worldwide as a reference organic dye for DSSCs. Excellent device stability has been obtained both under light and after at least 1000 h storage in darkness at temperatures of 85°C. The absorption spectrum of D35 makes it interesting also for indoor application due to a good match with fluorescent light. Moreover, it has been concluded that Dyenamo Orange (D35) is an excellent choice for see-through DSSC devices, due to high performance, good stability (also at 85°C), and an attractive orange color.

Full name:
(E)-3-(5-(4-(bis(2',4'-dibutoxy-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)amino)phenyl)thiophen-2-yl)-2-cyanoacrylic acid

Alternative name:
D35

CAS number:
1197992-37-2

Typical properties:
E0 = 1.04 V vs. NHE
λ max = 500 nm (31 000 M-1cm-1)
λ em = 597 nm (ethanol)
λ em = 658 nm (dichloromethane)
E0-0 = 2.18 eV
MW = 863.11 g/mol

References:

Select amount for quotation



DN-F04M

D45



Description:
D45 is a variant of Dyenamo Orange (D35) designed for use with aqueous electrolytes. The shorter alkyl chains on the donor side decreases the hydrophobicity of the sensitized surface, which improves wetting of the electrode when used with polar electrolyte solvents. Additionally, the smaller size of D45 compared to D35 enables it to reach higher dye loadings which allows the use of thinner TiO2 films.

Full name:
(E)-3-(5-(4-(bis(2',4'-dimethoxy-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)amino)phenyl)thiophen-2-yl)-2-cyanoacrylic acid

CAS number:
1513578-55-6

Typical properties:
Eox(DCM) = 0.99 V vs NHE
λmax(EtOH) = 471 nm (33 500 M-1 cm-1)
MW = 694.80 g/mol

References:
Select amount for quotation



DN-F05

Dyenamo Red







Description:
The two dyes DN-F05 (Dyenamo Red, also known as D35CPDT) and DN-F05Y (Y123) offer improved red-response in relation to DN-F04 (D35). Dyenamo's experience of DN-F05 and DN-F05Y is that they deliver very similar DSSC device performance and stability. However, out of these two dyes, DN-F05 is more cost-efficient in production and thus offered at a lower price.

Full name:
3-{6-{4-[bis(2',4'-dibutyloxybiphenyl-4-yl)amino-]phenyl}-4,4-dihexyl-cyclopenta-[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophene-2-yl}-2-cyanoacrylic acid

Alternative name:
Dyenamo red, D35CPDT, LEG4

CAS number:
1346255-80-8

Typical properties:
E0 = 0.88 V vs NHE
λ max = 541 nm (49 000 M-1 cm-1)
λ em = 717 nm (dichloromethane)
MW = 1125.58 g/mol

References:
Additional information
This product is covered by patents of EPFL, Switzerland. Please contact us or EPFL (http://tto.epfl.ch) for further information.
Select amount for quotation



DN-F05M

D51




Description:
D51 is a variant of Dyenamo Red (D35CPDT) designed for use with aqueous electrolytes. The shorter alkyl chains on the donor side decreases the hydrophobicity of the sensitized surface, which improves wetting of the electrode when used with polar electrolyte solvents.

Full name:
(E)-3-(6-(4-(bis(2',4'-dimethoxy-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)amino)phenyl)-4,4-dihexyl-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophen-2-yl)-2-cyanoacrylic acid

Alternative name:
D51

CAS number:
1513578-58-9

Typical properties:
Eox(DCM) = 0.95 V vs NHE
λmax(EtOH) = 505 nm (47 200 M-1 cm-1)
MW = 957.26 g/mol

References:
Select amount for quotation



DN-F05Y

Y123





Description:
The two dyes DN-F05 (Dyenamo Red, also known as D35CPDT) and DN-F05Y (Y123) offer improved red-response in relation to DN-F04 (D35). The Y123 dye has been used to obtain 10% solar cell efficiency (Energy Environ. Sci., 2011, 4, 492 4924. DOI: 10.1039/C1EE02389F). In addition, it has resulted in excellent device stability at high temperatures (Jian et al., Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells (2013), DOI: 10.1016/j.solmat.2013.04.017).

Full name:
3-{6-{4-[bis(2',4'-dihexyloxybiphenyl-4-yl)amino-]phenyl}-4,4-dihexyl-cyclopenta-[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiphene-2-yl}-2-cyanoacrylic acid

CAS number:
1312465-92-1

Typical properties:
E0 = 1.07 V vs NHE (dye adsorbed on TiO2, in acetonitrile)
λ max = 530 nm (48 000 M-1 cm-1)
MW = 1237.80 g/mol

Additional information
This product is covered by patents of EPFL, Switzerland. Please contact us or EPFL (http://tto.epfl.ch) for further information.

References:
Select amount for quotation



DN-F08

JF419




Description:
Organic dye with fluorene donor showing superior device efficiencies than previous organic dyes, including Y123 (see reference below).

Full name:
(E)-3-(6-(4-(bis(5,7-bis(hexyloxy)-9,9-dimethyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl)amino)phenyl)-4,4-dihexyl-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophen-2-yl)-2-cyanoacrylic acid

CAS number:
1391735-57-1

Typical properties:
E0 = 0.85 V vs NHE
λ max (DCM) = 554 nm (47 500 M-1 cm-1)
E0-0 = 2.10 eV
MW = 1317.93 g/mol

Additional information
This product is covered by patents of EPFL, Switzerland. Please contact us or EPFL (http://tto.epfl.ch) for further information.

References:
Select amount for quotation



DN-F09

MKA253







Description:
The dye MKA253 is our improved version of JF419 with the hexyloxy substituents on the fluorene donor replaced by butoxy groups. Dyenamo's experience of MKA253 and JF419 is that they deliver very similar DSSC device performance and stability. However, out of these two dyes, MKA253 is more cost-efficient in production and thus offered at a lower price.

Full name:
(E)-3-(6-(4-(bis(5,7-dibutoxy-9,9-dimethyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl)amino)phenyl)-4,4-dihexyl-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophen-2-yl)-2-cyanoacrylic acid

CAS number:
1649427-54-2

Typical properties:
E0 = 0.85 V vs NHE
λ max (DCM) = 554 nm (47 500 M-1 cm-1)
E0-0 = 2.10 eV
MW = 1205.71 g/mol

Additional information
This product is covered by patents of EPFL, Switzerland. Please contact us or EPFL (http://tto.epfl.ch) for further information.

Select amount for quotation



DN-F01

Dyenamo Yellow









Description:
The organic sensitizers DN-F01 (Dyenamo Yellow) to DN-F03 (D5) form a series of dyes with increasing conjugated π bridge. Among these three, the DN-F01 is the simplest donor-acceptor dye with high oxidation potential.

Full name:
4-(diphenylamino)phenylcyanoacrylic acid

Alternative name:
L0

CAS number:
30388-31-9

Typical properties:
E0 = 1.37 V vs. NHE
λ max (deprotonated)= 378 nm (36 000 M-1cm-1)
λ em = 507 nm (deprotonated, acetonitrile)
E0-0 = 2.9 eV
MW = 340.37 g/mol

References:
Select amount for quotation



DN-F02

L1










Description:
The organic sensitizers DN-F01 (Dyenamo Yellow) to DN-F03 (D5) form a series of dye with increasing conjugated π bridge.

Full name:
5-[4-(diphenylamino)phenyl]thiophene-2-cyanoacrylic acid

CAS number:
762269-56-7

Typical properties:
E0 = 1.21 V vs. NHE
λ max (deprotonated) = 404 nm (25 000 M-1cm-1)
λ em = 548 nm (deprotonated, acetonitrile)
E0-0 = 2.64 eV
MW = 422.50 g/mol

References:
Select amount for quotation



DN-F03

D5










Description:
The organic sensitizers DN-F01 (Dyenamo Yellow) to DN-F03 (D5) form a series of dye with increasing conjugated π bridge. Among these three, D5 is the more efficient organic dye.

Full name:
3-(5-(4-(diphenylamino)styryl)thiophen-2-yl)-2-cyanoacrylic acid

Alternative name:
L2

CAS number:
900182-08-3

Typical properties:
E0 = 1.08 V vs. NHE
λ max = 476 nm (38 000 M-1cm-1)
λ em = 594 nm (deprotonated, acetonitrile)
λ em = 625 nm (acetonitrile)
E0-0 = 2.25 eV
MW = 448.54 g/mol

References:
Select amount for quotation



DN-F13

Dyenamo Cloudberry Orange








Description:
Dyenamo Cloudberry Orange is a dye optimized for applications requiring a combination of high transparency and performance. This dye works well with both cobalt- and iodine-based redox mediators and is also suitable as a co-sensitizer for increasing blue light absorption and electron lifetimes. It has an appealing orange color, reminiscent of the cloudberries of the north.

Full name:
(E)-3-(4-(bis(2',4'-dibutoxy-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)amino)phenyl)-2-cyanoacrylic acid

Typical properties:
EOX (DCM) = 1.04 V vs NHE
λabs,max (DCM) = 451 nm (30 000 M-1 cm-1)
MW = 781.01 g/mol


Select amount for quotation



DN-F12

YD2








Description:
YD2 is a high-performance porphyrin dye with an attractive green color.

Full name:
Zinc(II) 5,15-Bis(3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)-10-(bis(4-hexylphenyl)amino)-20-
(4-carboxyphenylethynyl)porphyrin

Alternative name:
YD-2

CAS number:
1201915-91-4

Typical properties:
EOX (DMF) = 0.89 V vs NHE
λabs (THF) = 648 nm
MW = 1232.03 g/mol

References:

Select amount for quotation



DN-F11

DPP13








Description:
DPP13 is a high-performance blue dye that performs especially well with cobalt-based electrolytes.

Full name:
(E)-3-(5-(4-(4-(5-(4-(bis(4-(hexyloxy)phenyl)amino)phenyl)thiophen-2-yl)-2,5-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-3,6-dioxo-2,3,5,6-tetrahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrol-1-yl)phenyl)furan-2-yl)-2-cyanoacrylic acid

Typical properties:
EOX (DMF) = 0.99 V vs NHE
λabs (THF) = 587 nm
MW = 1123.51 g/mol

References:
Additional information
This product is covered by patents of EPFL, Switzerland. Please contact us or EPFL (http://tto.epfl.ch) for further information.

Select amount for quotation



DN-F14

Dyenamo Mareel Blue








Description:
Dyenamo Mareel Blue is a symmetrical squaraine dye with a vivid blue color that is well-suited for transparent DSSCs.

Full name:
(E)-4-((5-carboxy-3,3-dimethyl-1-octyl-3H-indol-1-ium-2-yl)methylene)-2-(((E)-5-carboxy-3,3-dimethyl-1-octylindolin-2-ylidene)methyl)-3-oxocyclobut-1-en-1-olate

Alternative name:
VG1-C8

CAS number:
1245046-23-4

Typical properties:
EOX (DMF) = 0.79 V vs NHE
Ered (DMF) = -0.87 V vs NHE
λabs (EtOH) = 646 nm (2,95⋅105 M-1 cm-1)
MW = 708.94 g/mol

References:
Select amount for quotation






DN-FI-Series

DN-FI07

MK245




Description:
The dye MK245 is an organic dye for near infrared sensitization.

Full name:
3-(2-((E)-2-((E)-3-((Z)-2-(3-(2-carboxyethyl)-1,1-dimethyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzo[e]indol-2-ylidene)ethylidene)-2-chlorocyclohex-1-en-1-yl)vinyl)-1,1-dimethyl-1H-benzo[e]indol-3-ium-3-yl)propanoate

CAS number:
193208-79-6

Typical properties:
E0 = 0.88 V vs. NHE
λ max = 822nm (146 000 M-1cm-1)
E0-0 = 1.38 eV
MW = 699.29 g/mol

References:
Select amount for quotation



DN-F15

Dyenamo Transparent Green




Description:
Dyenamo Transparent Green is a vividly green squaraine dye with good stability in DSSCs.

Full name:
(3Z,4Z)-4-((5-carboxy-3,3-dimethyl-1-octyl-3H-indol-1-ium-2-yl)methylene)-2-(((E)-5-carboxy-3,3-dimethyl-1-octylindolin-2-ylidene)methyl)-3-(1-cyano-2-ethoxy-2-oxoethylidene)cyclobut-1-en-1-olate

Alternative name:
HSQ4

CAS number:
1613706-91-4

Typical properties:
EOX (DMF) = 0.74 V vs NHE
λabs (DMF) = 703 nm (1,37⋅105 M-1 cm-1)
MW = 804.04 g/mol

References:
Select amount for quotation






DN-FP-Series

DN-FP01

P1




Description:
The dye P1 is a so-called p-type dye developed for sensitization of NiO electrodes for usage in both solar cell and solar fuel devices.

Full name:
4-(Bis-{4-[5-(2,2-dicyano-vinyl)-thiophene-2-yl]-phenyl}-amino)-benzoic acid

CAS number:
1042718-56-8

Typical properties:
HOMO: 1.38 V vs. NHE
LUMO: -0.87 vs. NHE
λ max = 468 nm (58 000 M-1cm-1)
MW = 605.69 g/mol

References:
  • P. Qin et al, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 8570
  • P. Qin et al, Adv. Mater., 2009, 21, 2993
  • L. Li et al, Adv. Mater., 2010, 22, 1759
  • H. Krysova et al, PCCP, 2016,18, 16444-16450, DOI: 10.1039/C6CP02209J

Select amount for quotation



Dyenamo AB
Teknikringen 38A
SE-114 28 Stockholm

+46 (0)10 173 00 10



© 2012 - 2018 Dyenamo AB