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Home > Materials > Perovskite precursors and additives

Perovskite precursors and additives

Perovskite solar cells are hybrid inorganic-organic solar cells. Since the breakthrough in 2012 (Lee et al. Science 338, 643, 2012; Kim et al. Scientific Reports 2: 591, 2012), the technique has climbed quickly in efficiency to reach the current record of 25.2 %. Dyenamo offers two standard purity grades of salts for perovskite preparation; >99.99 % (grade 4N) and >99.999 % (grade 5N). In addition, we offer a special grade of methylammonium iodide (DN-P02P), based on 4N grade material, but containing a controlled amount of phosphite as an additive. Apart from the precursor salts, we offer a selection of additives to our precursor salts for improved perovskite compositions. Other purity-grades and/or other materials are available on demand, please contact us for such request. Likewise, please contact us for larger amounts than the ones displayed.

Further strategic Dyenamo material-components for perovskite solar cells can be found in the product categories: Hole transport materials and dopants, Carbon pastes, TiO2 and platinum pastes and FTO glass.


Overview

Anion Iodide Chloride Bromide Thiocyanate Formate
Cation
Methylammonium DN-P02
DN-P08
DN-P09
DN-P12
DN-P14
Formamidinium DN-P10
DN-P22
DN-P11
DN-P13
Available
on demand
Guanidinium DN-P15
Available
on demand
Available
on demand
Available
on demand
Available
on demand
Phenetylammonium DN-P18 Available
on demand
Available
on demand
Available
on demand
Available
on demand
4-tert-butyl-benzylammonium DN-P21 Available
on demand
Available
on demand
Available
on demand
Available
on demand



DN-P02

Methylammonium iodide




Description:
Salt for preparation of CH3NH3PbI3. Dyenamo offers two standard grades of MAI (specifications below); >99.99 % (grade 4N) and >99.999 % (grade 5N). Moreover, we offer a special grade of methylammonium iodide (DN-P02P), based on 4N grade material, but containing a controlled amount of phosphite as an additive, which aids in the formation of high-quality methylammonium lead iodide perovskite films.

Alternative name:
MAI, Methanamine hydriodide, Methylamine hydriodide

Empirical Formula:
CH3NH3I

CAS number:
14965-49-2

Typical properties:
MW = 158.95 g/mol

Specification:
Product specification DN-P02-4N: Methylammonium iodide 99.99 %
Product specification DN-P02-5N: Methylammonium iodide 99.999 %
Product specification DN-P02P: Methylammonium iodide, 1500 ppm P

References:

Product Material Grade Select amount for quotation
DN-P02-4N Methylammonium iodide 99.99 %, trace elements basis
DN-P02-5N Methylammonium iodide 99.999 %, trace elements basis
DN-P02P Methylammonium iodide 1500 ppm P
 

DN-P08

Methylammonium chloride




Description:
Salt for preparation of CH3NH3PbCl3 opening for optimization of morphology and fine-tuning of the band-gap energy.

Alternative name:
MACl, Methylammonium monohydrochloride, Methylamine hydrochloride

Empirical Formula:
CH3NH3Cl

CAS number:
593-51-1

Typical properties:
MW = 67.52 g/mol

Specification:
Product specification DN-P08-4N: Methylammonium chloride 99.99 %
Product specification DN-P08-5N: Methylammonium chloride 99.999 %

Product Material Grade Select amount for quotation
DN-P08-4N Methylammonium chloride 99.99 %, trace elements basis
DN-P08-5N Methylammonium chloride 99.999 %, trace elements basis
 

DN-P09

Methylammonium bromide




Description:
Salt for preparation of CH3NH3PbBr3 opening for optimization of morphology and fine-tuning of the band-gap energy. Dyenamo offers two standard grades of MABr (specifications below); >99.99 % (grade 4N) and >99.999 % (grade 5N).

Alternative name:
MABr, Methylamine hydrobromide, Methanaminium bromide

Empirical Formula:
CH3NH3Br

CAS number:
6876-37-5

Typical properties:
MW = 111.97 g/mol

Specification:
Product specification DN-P09-4N: Methylammonium bromide 99.99 %
Product specification DN-P09-5N: Methylammonium bromide 99.999 %

Reference:

Product Material Grade Select amount for quotation
DN-P09-4N Methylammonium bromide 99.99 %, trace elements basis
DN-P09-5N Methylammonium bromide 99.999 %, trace elements basis
 

DN-P10

Formamidinium iodide




Description:
Salt for preparing engineered narrow bandgap perovskite materials for increased efficiency. Dyenamo offers two standard grades of FAI (specifications below); >99.99 % (grade 4N) and >99.999 % (grade 5N).

Alternative name:
FAI, Formamidine hydroiodide, Methanimidamide iodide, Iminomethylamine hydriodide

Empirical Formula:
CH5N2I

CAS number:
879643-71-7

Typical properties:
MW = 171.97 g/mol

Specification:
Product specification DN-P10-4N: Formamidinium iodide 99.99 %
Product specification DN-P10-5N: Formamidinium iodide 99.999 %

References:

Product Material Grade Select amount for quotation
DN-P10-4N Formamidinium iodide 99.99 %, trace elements basis
DN-P10-5N Formamidinium iodide 99.999 %, trace elements basis
 

DN-P11

Formamidinium bromide




Description:
Salt for bandgap tuning of perovskite materials. Dyenamo offers two standard grades of FABr (specifications below); >99.99 % (grade 4N) and >99.999 % (grade 5N).

Alternative name:
FABr, Formamidine hydrobromide, Methanimidamide bromide, Iminomethylamine hydrobromide

Empirical Formula:
CH5N2Br

CAS number:
146958-06-7

Typical properties:
MW = 124.97 g/mol

Specification:
Product specification DN-P11-4N: Formamidinium bromide 99.99 %
Product specification DN-P11-5N: Formamidinium bromide 99.999 %

Reference:

Product Material Grade Select amount for quotation
DN-P11-4N Formamidinium bromide 99.99 %, trace elements basis
DN-P11-5N Formamidinium bromide 99.999 %, trace elements basis
 

DN-P12

Methylammonium thiocyanate




Description:
Methylammonium thiocyanate can be used as an additive/dopant to the perovskite composition to improve the stability of the solar cell.

Alternative name:
MASCN

Empirical Formula:
CH3NH3SCN

CAS number:
61540-63-4

Typical properties:
MW = 90.14 g/mol

Specification:
Product specification DN-P12: Methylammonium thiocyanate
Select amount for quotation



DN-P13

Formamidinium thiocyanate




Description:
Formamidinium thiocyanate can be used as an additive/dopant to the perovskite composition to improve the stability of the solar cell.

Alternative name:
FASCN, Formamidine hydrothiocyanate, Methanimidamide thiocyanate, Iminomethylamine hydrothiocyanate

Empirical Formula:
CH5N2SCN

CAS number:
1821033-48-0

Typical properties:
MW = 103.14 g/mol

Specification:
Product specification DN-P13: Formamidinium thiocyanate
Select amount for quotation



DN-P14

Methylammonium formate




Description:
Methylammonium formate is an ionic liquid from which high quality films of perovskites such as MAPbI3 can be grown in a controlled manner.

Alternative name:
MAFa

Empirical Formula:
CH3NH3HCO2

CAS number:
25596-28-5

Typical properties:
MW = 77.08 g/mol
Tm = -21.7 °C
Tb = 162.1 °C

Specification:
Product specification DN-P14: Methylammonium formate

Reference:

Select amount for quotation



DN-P15

Guanidinium iodide




Description:
Guanidinium iodide can be used as an additive/dopant to the perovskite composition to improve the stability of the solar cell.

Alternative name:
GuI, GuaI, GdmI, Diaminomethaniminium iodide, Aminoformamidine hydriode, Guanidine hydriodide, Guanidine monohydriodide

Empirical Formula:
CH6IN3

CAS number:
19227-70-4

Typical properties:
MW = 186.98 g/mol

Specification:
Product specification DN-P15: Guanidinium iodide

Reference:

Select amount for quotation



DN-P18

Phenethylammonium iodide




Description:
Salt for preparation of 2D perovskites or2D/3D-mixed perovskites with enhanced phase and ambient stability.

Alternative name:
2-phenylethan-1-aminium iodide, 2-Phenylethylamine Hydroiodide, PEAI, Phenethylamine Hydroiodide, 2-Phenylethylammonium Iodide

Empirical Formula:
C8H12IN

CAS number:
151059-43-7

Typical properties:
MW = 249.10 g/mol

Specification:
Product specification DN-P18: Phenethylammonium iodide

References:

Select amount for quotation



DN-P21

4-tert-butyl-benzylammonium iodide




Description:
4-tert-butyl-benzylammonium iodide is an interface passivator for perovskite solar cells that can significantly accelerate the charge extraction from the perovskite materials into the hole-transporters and reduce device hysteresis as well as improve the device performance and stability.

Alternative name:
tBBAI

Empirical Formula:
C11H18IN

Typical properties:
MW = 291.18 g/mol

References:

Select amount for quotation



DN-P22

Formamidinium chloride




Description:
Formamidinium chloride is an additive for perovskite solar cells to promote the crystal nucleation and growth with the monodispersed domain as the surface morphologies, which can help to improve the solar cell device performance and stability.

Alternative name:
FACl, Formamidine hydrochloride, Methanimidamide chloride, Iminomethylamine hydrochloride

Empirical Formula:
CH5N2Cl

CAS number:
6313-33-3

Typical properties:
MW = 80.52 g/mol

Specification:
Product specification DN-P22-4N: Formamidinium chloride 99.99 %
Product specification DN-P22-5N: Formamidinium chloride 99.999 %

References:

Product Material Grade Select amount for quotation
DN-P22-4N Formamidinium chloride 99.99 %, trace elements basis
DN-P22-5N Formamidinium chloride 99.999 %, trace elements basis
 


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