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Home > Materials > Perovskite precursors and additives

Perovskite precursors and additives

Perovskite solar cells are hybrid inorganic-organic solar cells. Since the breakthrough in 2012 (Lee et al. Science 338, 643, 2012; Kim et al. Scientific Reports 2: 591, 2012), the technique has climbed quickly in efficiency to reach the current record of 25.2 %. Dyenamo offers two standard purity grades of salts for perovskite preparation; >99.99 % (grade 4N) and >99.999 % (grade 5N). In addition, we offer a special grade of methylammonium iodide (DN-P02P), based on 4N grade material, but containing a controlled amount of phosphite as an additive. Apart from the precursor salts, we offer a selection of additives to our precursor salts for improved perovskite compositions. Other purity-grades and/or other materials are available on demand, please contact us for such request. Likewise, please contact us for larger amounts than the ones displayed.

Further strategic Dyenamo material-components for perovskite solar cells can be found in the product categories: Hole transport materials and dopants, Carbon pastes, TiO2 and platinum pastes and FTO glass.


Overview

Anion Iodide Chloride Bromide Thiocyanate Formate Acetate
Cation
Methylammonium DN-P02
DN-P08
DN-P09
- DN-P14
DN-P29
Formamidinium DN-P10
DN-P22
DN-P11
DN-P13
DN-P24
DN-P30
Guanidinium DN-P15
Available
on demand
Available
on demand
DN-P28
Available
on demand
-
Phenetylammonium DN-P18 Available
on demand
Available
on demand
DN-P23
Available
on demand
-
4-tert-butyl-benzylammonium DN-P21 Available
on demand
Available
on demand
Available
on demand
Available
on demand
-
Cesium DN-P26 DN-P27 DN-P25 - - -
Benzylammonium Available
on demand
Available
on demand
Available
on demand
DN-P31 - -
Cyclohexyl-
ethylammonium
DN-P32 Available
on demand
Available
on demand
Available
on demand
- -
ortho-(phenylene)di(ethylammonium) DN-P33 Available
on demand
Available
on demand
Available
on demand
- -




DN-P02

Methylammonium iodide




Description:
Salt for preparation of CH3NH3PbI3. Dyenamo offers two standard grades of MAI (specifications below); >99.99 % (grade 4N) and >99.999 % (grade 5N). Moreover, we offer a special grade of methylammonium iodide (DN-P02P), based on 4N grade material, but containing a controlled amount of phosphite as an additive, which aids in the formation of high-quality methylammonium lead iodide perovskite films.

Alternative name:
MAI, Methanamine hydriodide, Methylamine hydriodide

Structural formula:
CH3NH3I

CAS number:
14965-49-2

Typical properties:
MW = 158.95 g/mol

Specification:
Product specification DN-P02-4N: Methylammonium iodide 99.99 %
Product specification DN-P02-5N: Methylammonium iodide 99.999 %
Product specification DN-P02P: Methylammonium iodide, 1500 ppm P

References:

Product Material Grade Select amount for quotation
DN-P02-4N Methylammonium iodide 99.99 %, trace elements basis
DN-P02-5N Methylammonium iodide 99.999 %, trace elements basis
DN-P02P Methylammonium iodide 1500 ppm P
 

DN-P08

Methylammonium chloride




Description:
Salt for preparation of CH3NH3PbCl3 opening for optimization of morphology and fine-tuning of the band-gap energy.

Alternative name:
MACl, Methylammonium monohydrochloride, Methylamine hydrochloride

Structural formula:
CH3NH3Cl

CAS number:
593-51-1

Typical properties:
MW = 67.52 g/mol

Specification:
Product specification DN-P08-4N: Methylammonium chloride 99.99 %
Product specification DN-P08-5N: Methylammonium chloride 99.999 %

Product Material Grade Select amount for quotation
DN-P08-4N Methylammonium chloride 99.99 %, trace elements basis
DN-P08-5N Methylammonium chloride 99.999 %, trace elements basis
 

DN-P09

Methylammonium bromide




Description:
Salt for preparation of CH3NH3PbBr3 opening for optimization of morphology and fine-tuning of the band-gap energy. Dyenamo offers two standard grades of MABr (specifications below); >99.99 % (grade 4N) and >99.999 % (grade 5N).

Alternative name:
MABr, Methylamine hydrobromide, Methanaminium bromide

Structural formula:
CH3NH3Br

CAS number:
6876-37-5

Typical properties:
MW = 111.97 g/mol

Specification:
Product specification DN-P09-4N: Methylammonium bromide 99.99 %
Product specification DN-P09-5N: Methylammonium bromide 99.999 %

Reference:

Product Material Grade Select amount for quotation
DN-P09-4N Methylammonium bromide 99.99 %, trace elements basis
DN-P09-5N Methylammonium bromide 99.999 %, trace elements basis
 

DN-P10

Formamidinium iodide




Description:
Salt for preparing engineered narrow bandgap perovskite materials for increased efficiency. Dyenamo offers two standard grades of FAI (specifications below); >99.99 % (grade 4N) and >99.999 % (grade 5N).

Alternative name:
FAI, Formamidine hydroiodide, Methanimidamide iodide, Iminomethylamine hydriodide

Structural formula:
CH5N2I

CAS number:
879643-71-7

Typical properties:
MW = 171.97 g/mol

Specification:
Product specification DN-P10-4N: Formamidinium iodide 99.99 %
Product specification DN-P10-5N: Formamidinium iodide 99.999 %

References:

Product Material Grade Select amount for quotation
DN-P10-4N Formamidinium iodide 99.99 %, trace elements basis
DN-P10-5N Formamidinium iodide 99.999 %, trace elements basis
 

DN-P11

Formamidinium bromide




Description:
Salt for bandgap tuning of perovskite materials. Dyenamo offers two standard grades of FABr (specifications below); >99.99 % (grade 4N) and >99.999 % (grade 5N).

Alternative name:
FABr, Formamidine hydrobromide, Methanimidamide bromide, Iminomethylamine hydrobromide

Structural formula:
CH5N2Br

CAS number:
146958-06-7

Typical properties:
MW = 124.97 g/mol

Specification:
Product specification DN-P11-4N: Formamidinium bromide 99.99 %
Product specification DN-P11-5N: Formamidinium bromide 99.999 %

Reference:

Product Material Grade Select amount for quotation
DN-P11-4N Formamidinium bromide 99.99 %, trace elements basis
DN-P11-5N Formamidinium bromide 99.999 %, trace elements basis
 

DN-P13

Formamidinium thiocyanate




Description:
Formamidinium thiocyanate can be used as an additive/dopant to the perovskite composition to improve the stability of the solar cell.

Alternative name:
FASCN, Formamidine hydrothiocyanate, Methanimidamide thiocyanate, Iminomethylamine hydrothiocyanate

Structural formula:
CH5N2SCN

CAS number:
1821033-48-0

Typical properties:
MW = 103.14 g/mol

Specification:
Product specification DN-P13: Formamidinium thiocyanate
Select amount for quotation



DN-P14

Methylammonium formate




Description:
Methylammonium formate is an ionic liquid from which high quality films of perovskites such as MAPbI3 can be grown in a controlled manner.

Alternative name:
MAFa

Structural formula:
CH3NH3HCO2

CAS number:
25596-28-5

Typical properties:
MW = 77.08 g/mol
Tm = -21.7 °C
Tb = 162.1 °C

Reference:


DN-P15

Guanidinium iodide




Description:
Guanidinium iodide can be used as an additive/dopant to the perovskite composition to improve the stability of the solar cell.

Alternative name:
GuI, GuaI, GdmI, Diaminomethaniminium iodide, Aminoformamidine hydriode, Guanidine hydriodide, Guanidine monohydriodide

Structural formula:
CH6IN3

CAS number:
19227-70-4

Typical properties:
MW = 186.98 g/mol

Specification:
Product specification DN-P15: Guanidinium iodide

Reference:

Select amount for quotation



DN-P18

Phenethylammonium iodide




Description:
Salt for preparation of 2D perovskites or2D/3D-mixed perovskites with enhanced phase and ambient stability.

Alternative name:
2-phenylethan-1-aminium iodide, 2-Phenylethylamine Hydroiodide, PEAI, Phenethylamine Hydroiodide, 2-Phenylethylammonium Iodide

Structural formula:
C8H12IN

CAS number:
151059-43-7

Typical properties:
MW = 249.10 g/mol

Specification:
Product specification DN-P18: Phenethylammonium iodide

References:

Select amount for quotation



DN-P21

4-tert-butyl-benzylammonium iodide




Description:
4-tert-butyl-benzylammonium iodide is an interface passivator for perovskite solar cells that can significantly accelerate the charge extraction from the perovskite materials into the hole-transporters and reduce device hysteresis as well as improve the device performance and stability.

Alternative name:
tBBAI

Structural formula:
C11H18IN

CAS number:
2366873-27-8

Typical properties:
MW = 291.18 g/mol

Specification:
Product specification DN-P21-3N: 4-tert-butyl-benzylammonium iodide 99.9%
Product specification DN-P21-4N: 4-tert-butyl-benzylammonium iodide 99.99%

References:

Product Material Grade Select amount for quotation
DN-P21-3N 4-tert-butyl-benzylammonium iodide 99.9 %, trace elements basis
DN-P21-4N 4-tert-butyl-benzylammonium iodide 99.99 %, trace elements basis
 

DN-P22

Formamidinium chloride




Description:
Perovskite precursor opening for further optimization of crystallization, grain size and surface morphology of the perovskite layer. In mixed halide PSCs, the addition of FACl has shown to suppress the formation of bulk and surface defects, providing a perovskite film with enhanced crystallinity and large grain size. Dyenamo offers two standard grades of FACl (specifications below); >99.99 % (grade 4N) and >99.999 % (grade 5N).

Alternative name:
FACl, Formamidine hydrochloride, Methanimidamide chloride, Iminomethylamine hydrochloride

Structural formula:
CH5N2Cl

CAS number:
6313-33-3

Typical properties:
MW = 80.52 g/mol

Specification:
Product specification DN-P22-4N: Formamidinium chloride 99.99 %
Product specification DN-P22-5N: Formamidinium chloride 99.999 %

References:

Product Material Grade Select amount for quotation
DN-P22-4N Formamidinium chloride 99.99 %, trace elements basis
DN-P22-5N Formamidinium chloride 99.999 %, trace elements basis
 

DN-P23

Phenetylammonium thiocyanate




Description:
Anion engineering of phenethylammonium-based two-dimensional materials such as phenetylammonium thiocynate (PEASCN) and phenethylammonium iodide (PEAI) can be used to control the structural and electrical properties of the 2D or 2D-3D perovskite, enabling efficient and stable perovskite solar cells.

Structural formula:
C8H12NSCN

Typical properties:
MW = 180.27 g/mol

References:
Select amount for quotation



DN-P24

Formamidinium formate




Description:
Pseudo-halide anion formate, such as formamidinium formate (FAFo) has been successfully introduced as an additive in perovskite precursor to effectively suppress anion-vacancy defects at both grain boundaries and the surface of the perovskite films. The defect passivation and the improved crystallinity of the additional formamidinium formate are critical in obtaining highly efficient perovskite solar cells with certified power conversion efficiency of over 25%.

Structural formula:
CH5N2HCO2

Typical properties:
MW = 90.08 g/mol

References:
Select amount for quotation



DN-P25

Cesium bromide




Description:
Cesium bromide has been widely used as main component or additive in inorganic or organic-inorganic-mixed perovskite precursors in perovskite solar cells.

Structural formula:
CsBr

Typical properties:
MW = 212.81 g/mol

Product Material Grade Select amount for quotation
DN-P25-4N Cesium bromide 99.99 %, trace elements basis
 

DN-P26

Cesium iodide




Description:
Cesium iodide has been widely used as main component or additive in inorganic or organic-inorganic-mixed perovskite precursors in perovskite solar cells.

Structural formula:
CsI

Typical properties:
MW = 259.81 g/mol

Product Material Grade Select amount for quotation
DN-P26-4N Cesium iodide 99.99 %, trace elements basis
 

DN-P27

Cesium chloride




Description:
Cesium chloride can be used as an additive/dopant to the perovskite composition to improve the efficiency and stability of the solar cell.

Structural formula:
CsCl

Typical properties:
MW = 168.36 g/mol


DN-P28

Guanidinium thiocyanate




Description:
Guanidinium thiocynate can be used as post-treatment agent to passivate the perovskite interface by reducing surface charge recombination, which results in improvement in the efficiency of perovskite solar cells with reduced hysteresis.

Structural formula:
CH6N3SCN

CAS number:
593-84-0

Typical properties:
MW = 118.16 g/mol

References:
Select amount for quotation



DN-P29

Methylammonium acetate




Description:
Methylammonium acetate can be used as an additive/dopant to the perovskite precursor to improve the efficiency of the solar cell.

Alternative name:
Methylamine Acetate, MAAc

Structural formula:
CH3NH2CH3COOH

CAS number:
6998-30-7

Typical properties:
MW = 91.11 g/mol

References:

Select amount for quotation



DN-P30

Formamidinium acetate




Description:
Formamidinium acetate can be used to synthesize δ-FAPbI3 and α-FAPbI3 by the powder engineering method.

Alternative name:
Formamidine acetate, FAAc

Structural formula:
CH5N2CH3COOH

CAS number:
3473-63-0

Typical properties:
MW = 104.11 g/mol

References:
Product Material Grade Select amount for quotation
DN-P30-4N Formamidinium acetate 99.99 %, trace elements basis
DN-P30-5N Formamidinium acetate 99.999 %, trace elements basis
 

DN-P31

Benzylammonium thiocyanate




Description:
Benzylammonium thiocyanate can be used in perovskite solar cells to improve device performance and stability.

Alternative name:
BASCN

Structural formula:
C7H10NSCN

CAS number:
51571-89-2

Typical properties:
MW = 166.24 g/mol

Select amount for quotation



DN-P32

2-Cyclohexylethylammonium iodide




Description:
2-Cyclohexylethylammonium iodide have been used as an interfacial treatment and shown to play a key role in enhancing perovskite solar cell device performance and especially effectively improvement in long-term stability.

Alternative name:
CEAI

Structural formula:
C8H18NI

Typical properties:
MW = 255.14 g/mol

References:

Select amount for quotation



DN-P33

ortho-(phenylene)di(ethylammonium) iodide




Description:
ortho-(phenylene)di(ethylammonium) iodide is an effective passivation agent for interfacial treatment between the perovskite and hole transporting layer, which delivers highly efficient and stable PSCs.

Alternative name:
o-PDEAI2

Structural formula:
C10H18N2I2

Typical properties:
MW = 420.07 g/mol

References:

Select amount for quotation




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