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Home > Materials > Components for Perovskite solar cells

Components for Perovskite solar cells

Perovskite solar cells are hybrid inorganic-organic solar cells that quickly climbed in efficiency to 22 % efficiency since the breakthrough in 2012 (Lee et al. Science 338, 643, 2012; Kim et al. Scientific Reports 2: 591, 2012). Dyenamo offers the strategic components for realizing perovskite solar cells; various salts for perovskite preparation, hole conductors and dopants for hole conductors. Other materials can be obtained on demand. For larger amounts than the ones displayed, please contact us


Salts for perovskite preparation

Hole conductors / Hole transport materials

Dopants and additives

Carbon Paste




Salts for perovskite preparation

DN-P02

Methylammonium iodide




Description:
Salt for preparation of CH3NH3PbI3.

Alternative name:
MAI, Methanamine hydriodide, Methylamine hydriodide

Empirical Formula:
CH3NH3I

CAS number:
14965-49-2

Typical properties:
MW = 158.95 g/mol

Specification:
Product specification DN-P02: Methylammonium iodide

Reference:

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DN-P08

Methylammonium chloride




Description:
Salt for preparation of CH3NH3PbCl3 opening for optimization of morphology and fine-tuning of the band-gap energy.

Alternative name:
MACl, Methylammonium monohydrochloride, Methylamine hydrochloride

Empirical Formula:
CH3NH3Cl

CAS number:
593-51-1

Typical properties:
MW = 67.52 g/mol

Specification:
Product specification DN-P08: Methylammonium chloride

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DN-P09

Methylammonium bromide




Description:
Salt for preparation of CH3NH3PbBr3 opening for optimization of morphology and fine-tuning of the band-gap energy.

Alternative name:
MABr, Methylamine hydrobromide, Methanaminium bromide

Empirical Formula:
CH3NH3Br

CAS number:
6876-37-5

Typical properties:
MW = 111.97 g/mol

Specification:
Product specification DN-P09: Methylammonium bromide

Reference:

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DN-P10

Formamidinium iodide




Description:
Salt for preparing engineered narrow bandgap perovskite materials for increased efficiency.

Alternative name:
FAI, Formamidine hydroiodide, Methanimidamide iodide, Iminomethylamine hydriodide

Empirical Formula:
CH5N2I

CAS number:
879643-71-7

Typical properties:
MW = 171.97 g/mol

Specification:
Product specification DN-P10: Formamidinium iodide

Reference:

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DN-P11

Formamidinium bromide




Description:
Salt for bandgap tuning of perovskite materials.

Alternative name:
FABr, Formamidine hydrobromide, Methanimidamide bromide, Iminomethylamine hydrobromide

Empirical Formula:
CH5N2I

CAS number:
146958-06-7

Typical properties:
MW = 124.97 g/mol

Specification:
Product specification DN-P11: Formamidinium bromide

Reference:

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DN-P12

Methylammonium thiocyanate




Description:
Methylammonium thiocyanate can be used as an additive/dopant to the perovskite composition to improve the stability of the solar cell.

Alternative name:
MASCN

Empirical Formula:
CH3NH3SCN

CAS number:
61540-63-4

Typical properties:
MW = 90.14 g/mol

Specification:
Product specification DN-P12: Methylammonium thiocyanate
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DN-P13

Formamidinium thiocyanate




Description:
Formamidinium thiocyanate can be used as an additive/dopant to the perovskite composition to improve the stability of the solar cell.

Alternative name:
FASCN, Formamidine hydrothiocyanate, Methanimidamide thiocyanate, Iminomethylamine hydrothiocyanate

Empirical Formula:
CH5N2SCN

CAS number:
1821033-48-0

Typical properties:
MW = 103.14 g/mol

Specification:
Product specification DN-P13: Formamidinium thiocyanate
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DN-P15

Guanidinium iodide




Description:
Guanidinium iodide can be used as an additive/dopant to the perovskite composition to improve the stability of the solar cell.

Alternative name:
GuI, GuaI, GdmI, Diaminomethaniminium iodide, Aminoformamidine hydriode, Guanidine hydriodide, Guanidine monohydriodide

Empirical Formula:
CH6IN3

CAS number:
19227-70-4

Typical properties:
MW = 186.98 g/mol

Specification:
Product specification DN-P15: Guanidinium iodide

Reference:

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Hole conductors / Hole transport materials

DN-X01

X51

Description:
X51 is a high-performance carbazole-based hole transport material (HTM) suitable for use in DSSC's and perovskite solar cells. In combination with a metal-free dye such as DN-F05, device power conversion efficiencies exceeding that of Spiro-OMeTAD has been achieved.

Full name:
9,9'-([1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diyl)bis(N3,N3,N6,N6-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)-9H-carbazole-3,6-diamine)

Typical properties:
Eox (DCM) = 0.64 V vs. NHE
Hole mobility = 1.51*10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1
λabs (DCM) = 365 nm, 307 nm (max)
MW = 1393.65 g/mol
Reorganization energy = 378 meV (calc.)

References:
Additional information:
This is a Dyenamo patent-pending product.

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DN-X02

X60

Description:
X60 is a high-performance hole transport material highly that has proven itself as an economical replacement for spiro-OMeTAD in both perovskite and solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with demonstrated efficiencies of 19.8 and 7.3% respectively.

Full name:
octakis(4-methoxyphenyl)spiro[fluorene-9,9'-xanthene]-2,2',7,7'-tetraamine

Typical properties:
Eox (DCM) = 0.65 V vs. NHE
Hole mobility = 1.9*10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1
λabs (PhMe) = 389 nm
MW = 1241.45 g/mol

References:
Bo Xu, et al., Energy & Environmental Science, 2016, DOI: 10.1039/C6EE00056H

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DN-X03

X59

Description:
X59 is a high-performance hole transport material that has proven itself as an economical replacement for spiro-OMeTAD in perovskite solar cells with a demonstrated efficiency of 19.8%.

Full name:
N2,N2,N7,N7-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)spiro[fluorene-9,9'-xanthene]-2,7-diamine

Typical properties:
Eox (DCM) = 0.65 V vs. NHE
Hole mobility = 5.5*10-5 cm2 V-1 s-1
λabs (PhMe) = 387 nm
MW = 786.93 g/mol

References:
Dongqin Bi, et al., Nano Energy, 2016, DOI: 10.1016/j.nanoen.2016.03.020

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DN-X04

tris(4-methoxyphenyl)amine

Description:
Tris(4-methoxyphenyl)amine is a small and versatile redox-active molecule which can be employed in both liquid and solid-state solar cells. In DSSCs with liquid electrolyte it can be used together with a metal-based redox couple to enable exceptionally fast dye regeneration, giving easy access to >10% efficiencies. In solid-state solar cells it may be used as a low cost hole-transporting material, either by itself or combined with another material such as P3HT.

Alternative name:
TPAA, TAA, tris(p-anisyl)amine, tris(para-anisyl)amine

CAS number:
13050-56-1

Typical properties:
Eox (DCM) = 0.85 V vs. NHE
MW = 335.40 g/mol

References:
J. Phys. Chem. C 2012, 116, 18070-18078, DOI: 10.1021/jp3052449
Chem. Mater., 2001, 13 (11), pp 4105-4111, DOI: 10.1021/cm010281p
Nature Commun. 7 (2016) 13934, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms13934





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DN-X05

Poly(triaryl amine)

Description:
p-Type polymeric semiconductor used in perovskite solar cells, OLEDs and other organic electronics applications. In perovskite solar cells it has been used with great success, enabling efficiencies in excess of 20%. More recently, it has also been shown that PTAA plays an important part in making highly stable perovskite solar cells by preventing metal atoms from the electrode from diffusing into the perovskite.

Full name:
Poly[bis(4-phenyl)(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)amine]

Alternative name:
PTAA

CAS number:
1333317-99-9

Typical properties:
Mn = 22000 g/mol

References:
Michael Saliba, et al., Science, 2016, DOI: 10.1126/science.aah5557
Woon Seok Yang, et al., Science, 2015, DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa9272
Jin Hyuck Heo, et al., Nature Photonics, 2013, DOI: 10.1038/nphoton.2013.80

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DN-X06

X44

Description:
A dopant-free ionic hole transport material suitable for use in perovskite solar cells. By avoiding dopants good stability and improved reproducibility can be achieved. Through the introduction of quarternary amine functional groups permanent charges are incorporated into the material. DN-X06 displays an order of magnitude higher hole conductivity compared to undoped spiro-OMeTAD.

Full name:
3,3'-(2,7-bis(bis(4-methoxyphenyl)amino)-9H-fluorene-9,9-diyl)bis(N-ethyl-N,N-dimethylpropan-1-aminium) bis[bis((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)amide]

Typical properties:
Eox (DCM) = 0.62 V vs NHE
Hole conductivity = 9.03*10-4 S cm-1
λabs (DCM) = 381 nm
MW = 1409.44 g/mol

References:
J. Zhang, et al., Adv. Energy Mater, 2017, DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201602736

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DN-X07

X55

Description:
A high-performance spiro[fluorene-9,9'-xanthene] (SFX) based hole transport material with demonstrated device efficiencies of up to 20.8% in perovskite solar cells.

Full name:
N2,N7-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)-N2,N7-di(spiro[fluorene-9,9'-xanthen]-2-yl)spiro[fluorene-9,9'-xanthene]-2,7-diamine

Typical properties:
Eox (DCM) = 0.73 V vs NHE
Hole conductivity = 9.03*10-4 S cm-1
λabs (DCM) = 406 nm
MW = 1235.45 g/mol

References:
B. Xu, et al., Chem, 2017, DOI: 10.1016/j.chempr.2017.03.011

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DN-X08

X62

Description:
A dopant-free hole transport material with a spiro[dibenzo[c,h]xanthene-7,9′-fluorene] (SDBXF) core. Demonstrated efficiency of 15.9% in perovskite solar cells without dopants (undoped Spiro-OMeTAD-based devices, 10.8%).

Full name:
N2',N2',N5,N5,N7',N7',N9,N9-octakis(4-methoxyphenyl)spiro[dibenzo- [c,h]xanthene-7,9'-fluorene]-2',5,7',9-tetraamine

Typical properties:
Eox (DCM) = 0.67 V vs NHE
Hole mobility = 7.95*10-5 cm2 V-1 s-1
λabs (DCM) = 383 nm
MW = 1341.57 g/mol

References:
Chem. Commun., 2018, 54, 9571. DOI: 10.1016/10.1039/c8cc04026e

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DN-EVH01

Eversolar® Spiro-OMeTAD

Description:
Spiro-OMeTAD is the reference hole-transport material for solid-state DSSCs and Perovskite solar cells.

Full name:
2,2',7,7'-Tetrakis[N,N-di(4-methoxyphenyl)amino]-9,9'-spirobifluorene

CAS number:
207739-72-8

Typical properties:
λabs.max (DCM) = 385 nm
MW = 1225.43 g/mol

Additional information:
Dyenamo is European distributor of Everlight's hole transport materials.

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Dopants and additives

DN-P03

FK102

Description:
Cobalt-based p-type dopant for organic hole conductors, such as spiro-MeOTAD

Full name:
Tris(2-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine)cobalt(III) tri(hexafluorophosphate)

CAS number:
1346416-70-3

Typical properties:
MW = 929.32 g/mol

Specification:
Product specification DN-P03: FK102

Reference:

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DN-P04

FK209

Description:
Cobalt-based p-type dopant for organic hole conductors, such as spiro-MeOTAD

Full name:
Tris(2-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-4-tert-butylpyridine)-cobalt(III) Tris(bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide)

CAS number:
1447938-61-5

Typical properties:
MW = 1503.16 g/mol

Specification:
Product specification DN-P04: FK209

Reference:



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DN-P14

Methylammonium formate




Description:
Methylammonium formate is an ionic liquid from which high quality films of perovskites such as MAPbI3 can be grown in a controlled manner.

Alternative name:
MAFa

Empirical Formula:
CH3NH3HCO2

CAS number:
25596-28-5

Typical properties:
MW = 77.08 g/mol
Tm = -21.7 °C
Tb = 162.1 °C

Specification:
Product specification DN-P14: Methylammonium formate

Reference:

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DN-P16

F4TCNQ

Description:
F4TCNQ is a strong molecular p-type dopant with a very wide range of applications stretching from perovskite solar cells to OPV, OLED and OFET. In 2018 it was demonstrated that adding a low (0.03%) concentration of F4TCNQ to the perovskite precursor solution enables the fabrication of >20% efficient HTM-free PSCs (ITO/perovskite/ETL/Cu structure). The F4TCNQ offered by Dyenamo is a high purity (>99%) sublimed grade material.

Chemical name:
2,2'-(perfluorocyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-diylidene)dimalononitrile

Alternative name:
2,3,5,6-Tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, F4-TCNQ

Empirical Formula:
C12F4N4

CAS number:
29261-33-4

Typical properties:
LUMO level = 5.24 eV
HOMO level = 8.34 eV
Mw = 276.15 g/mol

Reference:
DN-P16
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Carbon paste

DN-CP01

Carbon paste

Description:
A carbon paste providing a great connection to perovskite layers removing need for an intermediate hole conductor layer and opening up for novel process methods and concepts for perovskite solar cells and modules.

Properties:
  • Curing temperature:120 °C
  • Curing time:15 minutes
  • Deposition method:Doctor-blading is recommended but it is also suitable for other
  • methods including screen-printing
Reference:

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