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 Components for Perovskite solar cells


Perovskite solar cells are hybrid inorganic-organic solar cells that quickly climbed in efficiency to 22 % efficiency since the breakthrough in 2012 (Lee et al. Science 338, 643, 2012; Kim et al. Scientific Reports 2: 591, 2012). Dyenamo offers the strategic components for realizing perovskite solar cells; various salts for perovskite preparation, hole conductors and dopants for hole conductors. Other materials can be obtained on demand. In order to obtain quotations for research batches, please proceed via "Select amount for quotation" in the product descriptions. For larger amounts than the ones displayed, please contact us


Salts for perovskite preparation

Hole conductors / Hole transport materials

Dopants and additives

Carbon Paste




Salts for perovskite preparation

DN-P02

Methylammonium iodide

Description:
Salt for preparation of CH3NH3PbI3.

Alternative name:
MAI

Empirical Formula:
CH3NH3I

CAS number:
14965-49-2

Typical properties:
MW = 158.95 g/mol

Specification:
Product specification DN-P02: Methylammonium iodide

Reference:

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DN-P08

Methylammonium chloride

Description:
Salt for preparation of CH3NH3PbCl3 opening for optimization of morphology and fine-tuning of the band-gap energy.

Alternative name:
MACl

Empirical Formula:
CH3NH3Cl

CAS number:
593-51-1

Typical properties:
MW = 67.52 g/mol

Specification:
Product specification DN-P08: Methylammonium chloride

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DN-P09

Methylammonium bromide

Description:
Salt for preparation of CH3NH3PbBr3 opening for optimization of morphology and fine-tuning of the band-gap energy.

Alternative name:
MABr

Empirical Formula:
CH3NH3Br

CAS number:
6876-37-5

Typical properties:
MW = 111.97 g/mol

Specification:
Product specification DN-P09: Methylammonium bromide

Reference:

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DN-P10

Formamidinium iodide

Description:
Salt for preparing engineered narrow bandgap perovskite materials for increased efficiency.

Alternative name:
FAI, Formamidine hydroiodide

Empirical Formula:
CH5N2I

CAS number:
879643-71-7

Typical properties:
MW = 171.97 g/mol

Specification:
Product specification DN-P10: Formamidinium iodide

Reference:

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DN-P11

Formamidinium bromide

Description:
Salt for bandgap tuning of perovskite materials.

Alternative name:
FABr, Formamidine hydrobromide

Empirical Formula:
CH5N2I

CAS number:
146958-06-7

Typical properties:
MW = 124.97 g/mol

Specification:
Product specification DN-P11: Formamidinium bromide

Reference:

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DN-P14

Methylammonium formate

Description:
Methylammonium formate is an ionic liquid from which high quality films of perovskites such as MAPbI3 can be grown in a controlled manner.

Alternative name:
MAFa

Empirical Formula:
CH3NH3HCO2

CAS number:
25596-28-5

Typical properties:
MW = 77.08 g/mol
Tm = -21.7 °C
Tb = 162.1 °C

Specification:
Product specification DN-P14: Methylammonium formate

Reference:

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Hole conductors / Hole transport materials

DN-X01

X51

Description:
X51 is a high-performance carbazole-based hole transport material (HTM) suitable for use in DSSC's and perovskite solar cells. In combination with a metal-free dye such as DN-F05, device power conversion efficiencies exceeding that of Spiro-OMeTAD has been achieved.

Full name:
9,9'-([1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diyl)bis(N3,N3,N6,N6-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)-9H-carbazole-3,6-diamine)

Typical properties:
Eox (DCM) = 0.64 V vs. NHE
Hole mobility = 1.51*10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1
λabs (DCM) = 365 nm, 307 nm (max)
MW = 1393.65 g/mol
Reorganization energy = 378 meV (calc.)

References:
Additional information:
This is a Dyenamo patent-pending product.

DN-X01(X51)
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DN-X02

X60

Description:
X60 is a high-performance hole transport material highly that has proven itself as an economical replacement for spiro-OMeTAD in both perovskite and solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with demonstrated efficiencies of 19.8 and 7.3% respectively.

Full name:
octakis(4-methoxyphenyl)spiro[fluorene-9,9'-xanthene]-2,2',7,7'-tetraamine

Typical properties:
Eox (DCM) = 0.65 V vs. NHE
Hole mobility = 1.9*10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1
λabs (PhMe) = 389 nm
MW = 1241.45 g/mol

References:
Bo Xu, et al., Energy & Environmental Science, 2016, DOI: 10.1039/C6EE00056H

DN-X02
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DN-X03

X59

Description:
X59 is a high-performance hole transport material that has proven itself as an economical replacement for spiro-OMeTAD in perovskite solar cells with a demonstrated efficiency of 19.8%.

Full name:
N2,N2,N7,N7-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)spiro[fluorene-9,9'-xanthene]-2,7-diamine

Typical properties:
Eox (DCM) = 0.65 V vs. NHE
Hole mobility = 5.5*10-5 cm2 V-1 s-1
λabs (PhMe) = 387 nm
MW = 786.93 g/mol

References:
Dongqin Bi, et al., Nano Energy, 2016, DOI: 10.1016/j.nanoen.2016.03.020

DN-X03
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DN-X04

tris(4-methoxyphenyl)amine

Description:
Tris(4-methoxyphenyl)amine is a small and versatile redox-active molecule which can be employed in both liquid and solid-state solar cells. In DSSCs with liquid electrolyte it can be used together with a metal-based redox couple to enable exceptionally fast dye regeneration, giving easy access to >10% efficiencies. In solid-state solar cells it may be used as a low cost hole-transporting material, either by itself or combined with another material such as P3HT.

Alternative name:
TPAA, TAA, tris(p-anisyl)amine, tris(para-anisyl)amine

CAS number:
13050-56-1

Typical properties:
Eox (DCM) = 0.85 V vs. NHE
MW = 335.40 g/mol

References:
J. Phys. Chem. C 2012, 116, 18070-18078, DOI: 10.1021/jp3052449
Chem. Mater., 2001, 13 (11), pp 4105-4111, DOI: 10.1021/cm010281p
Nature Commun. 7 (2016) 13934, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms13934

DN-X04
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DN-X05

Poly(triaryl amine)

Description:
p-Type polymeric semiconductor used in perovskite solar cells, OLEDs and other organic electronics applications. In perovskite solar cells it has been used with great success, enabling efficiencies in excess of 20%. More recently, it has also been shown that PTAA plays an important part in making highly stable perovskite solar cells by preventing metal atoms from the electrode from diffusing into the perovskite.

Full name:
Poly[bis(4-phenyl)(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)amine]

Alternative name:
PTAA

CAS number:
1333317-99-9

Typical properties:
Mn = 22000 g/mol

References:
Michael Saliba, et al., Science, 2016, DOI: 10.1126/science.aah5557
Woon Seok Yang, et al., Science, 2015, DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa9272
Jin Hyuck Heo, et al., Nature Photonics, 2013, DOI: 10.1038/nphoton.2013.80

DN-X05
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DN-X06

X44

Description:
A dopant-free ionic hole transport material suitable for use in perovskite solar cells. By avoiding dopants good stability and improved reproducibility can be achieved. Through the introduction of quarternary amine functional groups permanent charges are incorporated into the material. DN-X06 displays an order of magnitude higher hole conductivity compared to undoped spiro-OMeTAD.

Full name:
3,3'-(2,7-bis(bis(4-methoxyphenyl)amino)-9H-fluorene-9,9-diyl)bis(N-ethyl-N,N-dimethylpropan-1-aminium) bis[bis((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)amide]

Typical properties:
Eox (DCM) = 0.62 V vs NHE
Hole conductivity = 9.03*10-4 S cm-1
λabs (DCM) = 381 nm
MW = 1409.44 g/mol

References:
J. Zhang, et al., Adv. Energy Mater, 2017, DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201602736

DN-X06
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DN-X07

X55

Description:
A high-performance spiro[fluorene-9,9'-xanthene] (SFX) based hole transport material with demonstrated device efficiencies of up to 20.8% in perovskite solar cells.

Full name:
N2,N7-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)-N2,N7-di(spiro[fluorene-9,9'-xanthen]-2-yl)spiro[fluorene-9,9'-xanthene]-2,7-diamine

Typical properties:
Eox (DCM) = 0.73 V vs NHE
Hole conductivity = 9.03*10-4 S cm-1
λabs (DCM) = 406 nm
MW = 1235.45 g/mol

References:
B. Xu, et al., Chem, 2017, DOI: 10.1016/j.chempr.2017.03.011

DN-X07
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DN-EVH01

Eversolar® Spiro-OMeTAD

Description:
Spiro-OMeTAD is the reference hole-transport material for solid-state DSSCs and Perovskite solar cells.

Full name:
2,2',7,7'-Tetrakis[N,N-di(4-methoxyphenyl)amino]-9,9'-spirobifluorene

CAS number:
207739-72-8

Typical properties:
λabs.max (DCM) = 385 nm
MW = 1225.43 g/mol

Additional information:
Dyenamo is European distributor of Everlight's hole transport materials.

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DN-EVHC01_small
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Dopants and additives

DN-P03

FK102

Description:
Cobalt-based p-type dopant for organic hole conductors, such as spiro-MeOTAD

Full name:
Tris(2-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine)cobalt(III) tri(hexafluorophosphate)

CAS number:
1346416-70-3

Typical properties:
MW = 932.34 g/mol

Specification:
Product specification DN-P03: FK102

Reference:
DN-P03
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DN-P04

FK209

Description:
Cobalt-based p-type dopant for organic hole conductors, such as spiro-MeOTAD

Full name:
Tris(2-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-4-tert-butylpyridine)-cobalt(III) Tris(bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide)

CAS number:
1447938-61-5

Typical properties:
MW = 1503.16 g/mol

Specification:
Product specification DN-P04: FK209

Reference:


DN-P04
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DN-P12

Methylammonium thiocyanate

Description:
Methylammonium thiocyanate can be used as an additive/dopant to the perovskite composition to improve the stability of the solar cell.

Alternative name:
MASCN

Empirical Formula:
CH3NH3SCN

CAS number:
61540-63-4

Typical properties:
MW = 90.14 g/mol

Specification:
Product specification DN-P12: Methylammonium thiocyanate
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DN-P13

Formamidinium thiocyanate

Description:
Formamidinium thiocyanate can be used as an additive/dopant to the perovskite composition to improve the stability of the solar cell.

Alternative name:
FASCN

Empirical Formula:
CH5N2SCN

CAS number:
1821033-48-0

Typical properties:
MW = 103.14 g/mol

Specification:
Product specification DN-P13: Formamidinium thiocyanate
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Carbon paste

DN-CP01

Carbon paste

Description:
A carbon paste providing a great connection to perovskite layers removing need for an intermediate hole conductor layer and opening up for novel process methods and concepts for perovskite solar cells and modules.

Properties:
  • Curing temperature:120 °C
  • Curing time:15 minutes
  • Deposition method:Doctor-blading is recommended but it is also suitable for other
  • methods including screen-printing
Reference:

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