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Home > Materials > Self-assembled monolayer materials

Self-assembled monolayer materials

Overview

DN-X48 DN-X49 DN-X34 DN-X37 DN-X35
MeO-4PADBC DCB-BPA MPA-CPA 2F, (MPA2FPh-BT-BA) DMAcPA
DN-X26 DN-X29 DN-X27 DN-X30 DN-X32
4PADCB Br-2EPT MPA-Ph-CA MPA-Ph-CPA EADR03
DN-X31 DN-X16 DN-X10 DN-X09 DN-X12
6PACz 3PACz Me-4PACz 2PACz Br-2PACz
DN-X13 DN-X33 DN-X18 DN-X19 DN-X20
MeO-2PACz MeO-4PACz F-2PACz Cl-2PACz I-2PACz
DN-X17 DN-X23 DN-X24 DN-X25 DN-X15
F-4PACz Cl-4PACz Br-4PACz I-4PACz 4PACz
DN-X39 DN-X38 DN-X40 DN-X41 DN-X42
4dp3PACz MeTPA-CPA BCBBr-C4PA 2PATPA Me-2PATPA
DN-X43 DN-X44 DN-X45 DN-X46 DN-X47
MeO-2PATPA Br-2PATPA Ph-2PATPA 2PANaPA Ph-2PACz
DN-X50 DN-X51 DN-X52 DN-X53 DN-X54
DC-PA Br-4PADBC CbzBT PTZ-CPA MeO-PhPACz
DN-X55 DN-X57 DN-X58 DN-X59 DN-X60
Me-PhpPACz IDCz-1 3-BPIC 3-BPIC-F IDCz-3
DN-X61 DN-IH01
3PATAT-C3 NiOx




DN-X09

2PACz

Description:
DN-X09 is a carbazole-based molecule with phosphonic acid as the anchoring group that can form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on various oxides. The SAMs can create an energetically aligned interface to the perovskite absorber without non-radiative losses. Demonstrated high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 21.1% and 23.26% in inverted p-i-n perovskite solar cells and monolithic CIGSe/perovskite tandem solar cells, respectively.

Full name:
(2-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)ethyl)phosphonic acid

CAS number:
20999-38-6

Typical properties:
λabs (on ITO glass) = 340 nm
MW = 275.24 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
• Amran Ashouri, et al., Energy & Environmental Science, 2019, DOI: 10.1039/c9ee02268f

Additional information
This product is covered by patents of Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH in Germany and Kaunas University of Technology in Lithuania. Please contact us for further information.


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DN-X10

Me-4PACz

Description:
DN-X10 is a carbazole-based molecule with phosphonic acid as the anchoring group that can form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on various oxides. The SAMs can create an energetically aligned interface to the perovskite absorber without non-radiative losses. Me-4PACz has shown the highest hole extraction efficiency of all tested SAMs and standard HTLs, with a with a certified power conversion efficiency of 29.15% for monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells.

Full name:
[4-(3,6-dimethyl-9H-carbazol-9-yl)butyl]phosphonic acid

CAS number:
2747959-96-0

Typical properties:
MW = 331.35 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
• Amran Al-Ashouri et al., Science, 2020, DOI: 10.1126/science.abd4016

Additional information
This product is covered by patents of Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH in Germany and Kaunas University of Technology in Lithuania. Please contact us for further information.

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DN-X12

Br-2PACz

Description:
DN-X12 is a Self-Assembled Monolayer (SAM) hole conductor, that was used to obtain an impressive 18.4 % efficiency for organic solar cell (OPV), DOI: 10.1002/cssc.202100707. This is Dyenamo's first product that has been specifically developed for OPVs.

Full name:
[2-(3,6-dibromo-9H-carbazol-9-yl)ethyl]phosphonic acid

CAS number:
2762888-11-7

Typical properties:
HOMO = -6.01 eV
LUMO = -2.64 eV
Hole mobility = 5.4 * 10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1
MW = 433.03 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• organic solar cells (OPV)

References:
• Lin et al., ChemSusChem 2021, 14, 1-11 DOI: 10.1002/cssc.202100707

Additional information:
This product is covered by patents of Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH in Germany and Kaunas University of Technology in Lithuania. Please contact us for further information.

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DN-X13

MeO-2PACz

Description:
MeO-2PACz is a carbazole-based molecule with phosphonic acid as the anchoring group that can form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on various oxides. Especially, by mixing with 2PACz ([2-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)ethyl]phosphonic acid), they can bridge the interface due to the excellent hole selectivity and reduced interfacial recombination. Such mixture has achieved certified PCE of 24.4% for flexible all-perovskite tandem solar cells and certified PCE of 23.26% on 1 cm2 CIGSe/perovskite tandem solar cells, respectively.

Full name:
[2-(3,6-dimeth oxy-9H-carbazol-9-yl)ethyl]phosphonic acid)

CAS number:
2377770-18-6

Typical properties:
MW = 335.3 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
• Amran Al-Ashouri et al., Science, 2020, DOI: 10.1126/science.abd4016

Additional information:
This product is covered by patents of Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH in Germany and Kaunas University of Technology in Lithuania. Please contact us for further information.

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DN-X15

4PACz

Description:
DN-X15 (4PACz) a carbazole-based molecule with phosphonic acid as the anchoring group that can form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on various oxides (FTO, ITO or other flexible TCO substrates). DN-X15 is one simplified alternative to DN-X10 (Me-4PACz). The SAMs can create an energetically aligned interface to the perovskite absorber by mitigating interfacial recombination and facilitates hole extraction. Me-4PACz has shown the highest hole extraction efficiency of all tested SAMs and standard HTLs, with a certified power conversion efficiency of 29.2% and 29.8% for monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells. DN-X15 (4PACz) is expected to be on par with Me-4PACz in hole extraction in perovskite and tandem devices.

Full name:
(4-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)butyl)phosphonic acid

CAS number:
20999-36-4

Typical properties:
MW = 303.30 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
•P., Tockhorn, J. Sutter, A. Cruz et al., Nat. Nanotechnol., 2022, DOI: 10.1038/s41565-022-01228-8

• A. Amran, K. Eike, L. Bor et al., Science, 2020, DOI: 10.1126/science.abd4016

Additional information:
This product is covered by patents of Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH in Germany and Kaunas University of Technology in Lithuania. Please contact us for further information.

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DN-X16

3PACz

Description:
DN-X16 (3PACz) a carbazole-based molecule with phosphonic acid as the anchoring group that can form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on various oxides (FTO, ITO or other flexible TCO substrates). DN-X16 is one simplified alternative to DN-X10 (Me-4PACz). The PACz monolayers exhibit higher optical transmittance and lower resistance, in addition, the PACz SAMs can create an energetically aligned interface to the photo absorber of PSCs and OPVs, mitigates interfacial recombination and facilitates hole extraction. In OPV devices, 3PACz showed superior device performance in comparison with 2PACz and 4PACz. In PSCs, Me-4PACz has shown the highest hole extraction efficiency of all tested SAMs and standard HTLs, with a certified power conversion efficiency of 29.2% and 29.8% for monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells. DN-X16 (4PACz) is expected to be on par with Me-4PACz in hole extraction in perovskite and tandem devices.

Full name:
(3-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)propyl)phosphonic acid

Typical properties:
MW = 289.27 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
•P., Tockhorn, J. Sutter, A. Cruz et al., Nat. Nanotechnol., 2022, DOI: 10.1038/s41565-022-01228-8

• A. Amran, K. Eike, L. Bor et al., Science, 2020, DOI: 10.1126/science.abd4016

• B.Haijun, D. Kunal, W. Junke et al., ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2022, DOI: 10.021/acsami.2c01900

Additional information:
This product is covered by patents of Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH in Germany and Kaunas University of Technology in Lithuania. Please contact us for further information.

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DN-X17

F-4PACz

Description:
DN-X17 (F-4PACz) a carbazole-based molecule with phosphonic acid as the anchoring group that can form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on various oxides (FTO, ITO or other flexible TCO substrates). The PACz monolayers exhibit higher optical transmittance and lower resistance, in addition, the PACz SAMs can create an energetically aligned interface to the photo absorber of PSCs and OPVs, mitigates interfacial recombination and facilitates hole extraction. In PSCs, Me-4PACz has shown the highest hole extraction efficiency of all tested SAMs and standard HTLs, with record-breaking certified power conversion efficiency of 29.2% and 29.8% for monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells. Lately, the introduction of halogen atoms, i.e., F, Cl, Br and I, was verified to further enhance the hole mobility, reducing the resistance and mitigating the interfacial charge recombination in both OPV and PSC devices. DN-X17 (F-4PACz), which is from the same family of Me-4PACz, is expected to be on par with Me-4PACz in hole extraction in inverted perovskite, multijunction of Si/Perovskite, Perovskite/Perovskite tandem devices, as well as OPVs.

Full name:
(4-(3,6-difluoro-9H-carbazol-9-yl)butyl)phosphonic acid

Typical properties:
MW = 339.28 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
•P., Tockhorn, J. Sutter, A. Cruz et al., Nat. Nanotechnol., 2022, DOI: 10.1038/s41565-022-01228-8

• A. Amran, K. Eike, L. Bor et al., Science, 2020, DOI: 10.1126/science.abd4016

• B.Haijun, D. Kunal, W. Junke et al., ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2022, DOI: 10.021/acsami.2c01900

• Y. Lin, J. Zhang, M. Marcinskas et al., Adv. Energy Mater., 2022, DOI: 10.1002/aenm.202202503

Additional information:
This product is covered by patents of Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH in Germany and Kaunas University of Technology in Lithuania. Please contact us for further information.

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DN-X18

F-2PACz

Description:
DN-X18 (F-2PACz) is a carbazole-based molecule with phosphonic acid as the anchoring group that can form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on various oxides (FTO, ITO or other flexible TCO substrates). And the introduction of halogen atoms in the SAM molecules, i.e., F, Cl, Br and I, was verified to further enhance the hole mobility, reduce the resistance and mitigate the interfacial charge recombination in both OPV and PSCs devices. DN-X18 (F-2PACz) is expected to show a boosted effect in hole extraction in inverted perovskite, multijunction Si/Perovskite and Perovskite/Perovskite tandem devices, and OPVs.

Full name:
(2-(3,6-difluoro-9H-carbazol-9-yl)ethyl)phosphonic acid

Typical properties:
MW = 311.22 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
• Y. Lin, J. Zhang, M. Marcinskas et al., Adv. Energy Mater., 2022, DOI: 10.1002/aenm.202202503

Additional information:
This product is covered by patents of Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH in Germany and Kaunas University of Technology in Lithuania. Please contact us for further information.

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DN-X19

Cl-2PACz

Description:
DN-X19 (Cl-2PACz) is a chlorine substituted carbazole based molecule with phosphonic acid as the anchoring group that can form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on various oxides (FTO, ITO or other flexible TCO substrates). The introduction of halogen atoms, i.e., F, Cl, Br and I, was verified to further enhance the hole mobility, reduce the resistance and mitigate the interfacial charge recombination in both OPV and PSCs devices. DN-X19 (Cl-2PACz) is expected to have unique roles in hole extraction in inverted perovskite, multijunction Si/Perovskite, Perovskite/Perovskite tandem devices, and OPVs.

Full name:
(2-(3,6-dichloro-9H-carbazol-9-yl)ethyl)phosphonic acid

Typical properties:
MW = 344.13 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
• Y. Lin, J. Zhang, M. Marcinskas et al., Adv. Energy Mater., 2022, DOI: 10.1002/aenm.202202503

Additional information:
This product is covered by patents of Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH in Germany and Kaunas University of Technology in Lithuania. Please contact us for further information.

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DN-X20

I-2PACz

Description:
DN-X20 (I-2PACz) is a carbazole based-molecule with iodine substitution and phosphonic acid as the anchoring group that can form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on various oxides (FTO, ITO or other flexible TCO substrates). The introduction of halogen atoms, i.e., F, Cl, Br and I, was verified to further enhance the hole mobility, reduce the resistance and mitigate the interfacial charge recombination in both OPV and PSCs devices. DN-X20 (I-2PACz) is expected to have unique roles in hole extraction in inverted perovskite, multijunction Si/Perovskite, Perovskite/Perovskite tandem devices, and OPVs.

Full name:
(2-(3,6-diiodo-9H-carbazol-9-yl)ethyl)phosphonic acid

Typical properties:
MW = 527.04 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
• Y. Lin, J. Zhang, M. Marcinskas et al., Adv. Energy Mater., 2022, DOI: 10.1002/aenm.202202503

Additional information:
This product is covered by patents of Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH in Germany and Kaunas University of Technology in Lithuania. Please contact us for further information.

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DN-X23

Cl-4PACz

Description:
DN-X23 (Cl-4PACz) is a carbazole-based molecule with chorine as capping group and phosphonic acid as the anchoring group that can form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on various oxides (FTO, ITO or other flexible TCO substrates). In PSCs, Me-4PACz has shown the highest hole extraction efficiency of all tested SAMs and standard HTLs, with record-breaking certified power conversion efficiency of 29.2% and 29.8% for monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells. And the introduction of halogen atoms into the SAM molecules, i.e., F, Cl, Br and I, was verified to further enhance the hole mobility, reduce the resistance and mitigate the interfacial charge recombination in both OPV and PSCs devices. DN-X23 (Cl-4PACz), which is from the same family as Me-4PACz, is expected to show boosted effects in hole extraction in inverted perovskite, multijunction Si/Perovskite, Perovskite/Perovskite tandem devices, and OPVs.

Full name:
(4-(3,6-dichloro-9H-carbazol-9-yl)butyl)phosphonic acid

Typical properties:
MW = 372.18 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
•P., Tockhorn, J. Sutter, A. Cruz et al., Nat. Nanotechnol., 2022, DOI: 10.1038/s41565-022-01228-8

• A. Amran, K. Eike, L. Bor et al., Science, 2020, DOI: 10.1126/science.abd4016

• Y. Lin, J. Zhang, M. Marcinskas et al., Adv. Energy Mater., 2022, DOI: 10.1002/aenm.202202503

Additional information:
This product is covered by patents of Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH in Germany and Kaunas University of Technology in Lithuania. Please contact us for further information.

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DN-X24

Br-4PACz

Description:
DN-X24 (Br-4PACz) is a carbazole-based molecule with bromine as interaction group to the perovskite and phosphonic acid as the anchoring group that can form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on various oxides (FTO, ITO or other flexible TCO substrates). The introduction of halogen atoms in SAM molecules, i.e., F, Cl, Br and I, was verified to further enhance the hole mobility, reduce the resistance and mitigate the interfacial charge recombination in both OPV and PSCs devices. DN-X24 (Br-4PACz) is expected show exclusive effects in hole extraction in inverted perovskite, multijunction Si/Perovskite and Perovskite/Perovskite tandem devices, and OPVs.

Full name:
(4-(3,6-dibromo-9H-carbazol-9-yl)butyl)phosphonic acid

Typical properties:
MW = 461.09 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
• Y. Lin, J. Zhang, M. Marcinskas et al., Adv. Energy Mater., 2022, DOI: 10.1002/aenm.202202503

Additional information:
This product is covered by patents of Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH in Germany and Kaunas University of Technology in Lithuania. Please contact us for further information.

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DN-X25

I-4PACz

Description:
DN-X24 (I-4PACz) is a carbazole-based molecule with bromine as interaction group to the perovskite and phosphonic acid as the anchoring group that can form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on various oxides (FTO, ITO or other flexible TCO substrates). The introduction of halogen atoms in SAM molecules, i.e., F, Cl, Br and I, was verified to further enhance the hole mobility, reduce the resistance and mitigate the interfacial charge recombination in both OPV and PSCs devices. DN-X24 (I-4PACz) is expected show exclusive effects in hole extraction in inverted perovskite, multijunction Si/Perovskite and Perovskite/Perovskite tandem devices, and OPVs.

Full name:
(4-(3,6-diiodo-9H-carbazol-9-yl)butyl)phosphonic acid

Typical properties:
MW = 555.09 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
• Y. Lin, J. Zhang, M. Marcinskas et al., Adv. Energy Mater., 2022, DOI: 10.1002/aenm.202202503

Additional information:
This product is covered by patents of Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH in Germany and Kaunas University of Technology in Lithuania. Please contact us for further information.

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DN-X26

4PADCB

Description:
DN-X26 (4PADCB or CbzNaph) is a novel SAM molecule constructed with an extended conjugated terminal group of 7H-dibenzocarbazole (DCB) and was successfully used in inverted perovskite solar cells and all perovskite tandem devices. With DX-26 as SAM, improved film coverage and surface wettability was obatined. These properties allow fast hole extraction and suppress interfacial non-radiative recombination losses.

Full name:
(4-(7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazol-7-yl)butyl)phosphonic acid

CAS number:
2882156-63-8

Typical properties:
MW = 403.42 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
• W. Jiang, F. Li, M. Li, et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2022, DOI: 10.1002/anie.202213560

• R. He, W. Wang, Z. Yi, et al., Nature, 2023, DOI: 10.1038/s41586-023-05992-y

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DN-X27

MPA-Ph-CA

Description:
DN-X27 (MPA-Ph-CA) is a D-pi-A configured self-assembly monolayer material with a conjugated benzene moiety as linker, which is delicately designed to mitigate the insufficient hole-transport capability typically shown by the insulating alkyl linker-based SAMs. DN-X27 shows very good photo- and electrochemical stability. With the extended conjugation, DN-X27 not only enhances charge transport but also stabilizes the electron-rich MPA moieties through charge delocalization, resulting in enhanced device performance and stability.

Full name:
3-(4'-(bis(4-methoxyphenyl)amino)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)-2-cyanoacrylic acid

CAS number:
1813558-55-2

Typical properties:
MW = 476.53 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
• S. Zhang, Y. Wu, W. Zhu, et al., ACS materials Lett., 2022, DOI: 10.1021/acsmaterialslett.2c00799

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DN-X29

Br-2EPT

Description:
DN-X29 (Br-2EPT) is a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) material constructed by a two-bromine substituted phenothiazine as functional moiety, a two-carbon alkyl chain as linker and a phosphonic acid unit as the anchoring group. The molecularly tailored SAM Br-2EPT enables an energetically well-aligned interface with the perovskite absorber film minimizing non-radiative interfacial recombination losses, thus dramatically improving charge extraction/transport and device performance, as well as the device durability.

Full name:
(2-(3,7-dibromo-10H-phenothiazin-10-yl)ethyl)phosphonic acid

CAS number:
2826271-17-2

Typical properties:
MW = 465.10 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
• A. Ullah, K. H. Park, Y. S. Park, et al., Adv. Energy Mater., 2022, DOI: 10.1002/aenm.202103175

Additional information:
This product is covered by patents of Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH in Germany and Kaunas University of Technology in Lithuania. Please contact us for further information.

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DN-X30

MPA-Ph-CPA

Description:
DN-X30 (MPA-Ph-CPA) is a D-pi-A configured self-assembly monolayer material with a conjugated benzene moiety as linker, which is delicately designed to mitigate the insufficient hole-transport capability typically shown by the insulating alkyl linker-based SAMs. As an alternative to DN-X27, a phosphonic acid unit is attached to offer a stronger anchoring group to the substrates. With the extended conjugation, DN-X30 not only enhance charge transport but also stabilized the electron-rich MPA unit through charge delocalization.

Full name:
(2-(4'-(bis(4-methoxyphenyl)amino)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)-1-cyanovinyl)phosphonic acid

Typical properties:
MW = 512.50 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
• S. Zhang, Y. Wu, W. Zhu, et al., ACS Materials Lett., 2022, DOI: 10.1021/acsmaterialslett.2c00799

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DN-X31

6PACz

Description:
DN-X31 (6PACz) is a carbazole-based molecule with phosphonic acid as the anchoring group that can form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on various oxides (FTO, ITO or flexible substrates). As an alternative to the bench-marking DN-X10 (Me-4PACz), DN-X31 with a longer alkyl chain will bring other SAM packing patterns and thereby generate new charge transport channels and mechanisms.

Full name:
(6-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)hexyl)phosphonic acid

Typical properties:
MW = 331.35 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
• P. Tockhorn, J. Sutter, A. Cruz, et al., Nature Nanotech., 2022, DOI: 10.1038/s41565-022-01228-8

• I. levine, T. Unold, S. Albrecht, T. Dittrich, et al., Joule, 2021, DOI: 10.1016/j.joule.2021.07.016

Additional information:
This product is covered by patents of Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH in Germany and Kaunas University of Technology in Lithuania. Please contact us for further information.

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DN-X32

EADR03

Description:
DN-X32 (EADR03) is a self-assembly monolayer (SAM) material featuring a modified bulky carbazole as functional moiety. The attachment of two 1,3-dimethoxy benzene units onto the carbazole core give a good energy alignment with the perovskite absorber film, and at the same time enhances its solubility. EADR03 was validated to facilitate hole transport, block undesired back-donation of electrons, and to passivate surface defects when applied as hole-selective contact in solar cell devices.

Full name:
4-(3,6-bis(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-9H-carbazol-9-yl)benzoic acid

CAS number:
2918298-65-2

Typical properties:
MW = 559.62 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
• E. Aktas, A. Abate, E. Palomares, et al., Energy Environ. Sci., 2021, DOI: 10.1039/D0EE03807E

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DN-X33

MeO-4PACz

Description:
DN-X33 (MeO-4PACz) is a carbazole-based, self-assembled monolayer material for inverted perovskite solar cells. DN-X33 is a modified alternative to DN-X13 (MeO-2PACz) and DN-X10 (Me-4PACz). The introduction of the methoxy group is aimed to mitigate the poor reproducibility of perovskite layer deposition originating from the hydrophobic property of Me-4PACz. The longer alky chain linker is introduced to modulate the molecule stacking. DN-X33 (MeO-4PACz) is expected to be on par with Me-4PACz in hole extraction efficiency in perovskite and tandem devices.

Full name:
(4-(3,6-dimethoxy-9H-carbazol-9-yl)butyl)phosphonic acid

CAS number:
2922526-56-3

Typical properties:
MW = 363.35 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
• A. Al-Ashouri, et al., Science, 2020, DOI: 10.1126/science.abd4016

Additional information:
This product is covered by patents of Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH in Germany and Kaunas University of Technology in Lithuania. Please contact us for further information.

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DN-X34

MPA-CPA

Description:
DN-X34 (MPA-CPA) is an amphiphilic molecular hole transporting material primarily used in inverted perovskite solar cells.The multifunctional cyanovinyl phosphonic acid group, MPA-CPA, offers a superwetting underlayer for perovskite deposition enabling high-quality perovskite films with minimal defects at the buried interface, hence dramatically enhancing the device performance.

Full name:
(2-(4-(bis(4-methoxyphenyl)amino)phenyl)-1-cyanovinyl)phosphonic acid

CAS number:
2212003-31-9

Typical properties:
MW = 436.40 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
• S. Zhang, F. Ye, Y. Wu, et al., Science, 2023, DOI: 10.1126/science.adg3755

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DN-X35

DMAcPA

Description:
DN-X35 (DMAcPA) is self-assembly monolayer material with dimethylacridine as functional group, and it can be used in the fabrication of optoelectronic devices, such as inverted perovskite solar cells, organic solar cells and LEDs. Doping the perovskite directly with DMAcPA was verified to generate a well-matched p-perovskite/ITO contact interface along with effective passivation of the grain boundaries, achieving a certified power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 25.39%. The DMAcPA was shown to undergo a molecular extrusion process during the solvent quenching process and spontaneously aggregated at the bottom surface and grain boundaries of the perovskite layer. The DMAcPA doping reduces the deep-level, hole-trap density by suppressing the defect states of the grain boundaries and surfaces, thereby enhancing the device lifespan and performance.

Full name:
(4-(2,7-dibromo-9,9-dimethylacridin-10(9H)-yl)butyl)phosphonic acid

Typical properties:
MW = 503.17 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
• Q. Tan, Z. He, et al., Nature, 2023, DOI: 10.1038/s41586-023-06207-0

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DN-X37

MPA2FPh-BT-BA

Description:
DN-X37 (2F, (MPA2FPh-BT-BA)) is a donor-acceptor-type, hole-selective contact material, which is suitable to both wide-bandgap (WBG) and low-bandgap (LBG) subcells for high-performance perovskite tandem solar cells. With benzoic acid as anchoring group, the 2F molecules exhibit a predominantly face-on orientation stacking when deposited onto the TCO, enabling efficient cross-plane charge extraction. In the WBG cells, 2F enables efficient hole extraction and minimizes interfacial non-radiative recombination losses by passivating interfacial defects. In the LBG cells, 2F suppresses interfacial losses, regulates the crystal growth and enhances the Sn-Pb perovskite film quality. With these merits, highly performing perovskite tandem devices with record-breaking efficiency and excellent operational stability have been realized.

Full name:
4-(7-(4-(bis(4-methoxyphenyl)amino)-2,5-difluorophenyl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazol-4-yl)benzoic acid

Typical properties:
MW = 595.62 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
• J. Zhu, Y. Luo, R. He, et al., Nature Energy, 2023, DOI: 10.1038/s41560-023-01274-z

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DN-X38

MeTPA-CPA

Description:
DN-X38 (MeTPA-CPA) is an amphiphilic molecular hole transporter used in inverted perovskite solar cells. As a derivative to DN-X34, DN-X38 includes a methyl group to substitute the methoxy group in the functional moiety, with the ambition to obtain more ordered molecular packing on the substrate. In addition, the multifunctional cyanovinyl phosphonic acid group could facilitate a superwetting underlayer for perovskite deposition, which enables high-quality perovskite films with minimized defects at the buried interface, i.e. enhancement of the device performance.

Full name:
(E)-(1-cyano-2-(4-(di-p-tolylamino)phenyl)vinyl)phosphonic acid

Typical properties:
MW = 404.41 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
• S. Zhang, F. Ye, Y. Wu, et al., Science, 2023, DOI: 10.1126/science.adg3755

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DN-X39

4dp3PACz

Description:
DN-X39 (4dp3PACz) is a delicately designed self-assembled monolayer material for specific application in wide bandgap perovskite solar cells (WBG PSCs) and related tandem devices. The hydrophilic property of 4dp3PACz has been validated to promote a high-quality perovskite layer deposition. At the same time, the substituted TPA group was proved to effectively passivate defects in the perovskite films.

Full name:
(3-(3-(4-(diphenylamino)phenyl)-9H-carbazol-9-yl)propyl)phosphonic acid

Typical properties:
MW = 532.58 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
• H. Bi, H. Segawa, S. Grigalevicius, Q. Shen, S. Hayase, et al., ACS Energy Lett., 2023, DOI: 10.1021/acsenergylett.3c01275

Additional information:
This product is covered by patents of Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH in Germany and Kaunas University of Technology in Lithuania. Please contact us for further information.

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DN-X40

BCBr-C4PA

Description:
DN-X40 (BCBr-C4PA) is a versatile SAM functioning as a highly efficient hole-transport layer material for wide bandgap perovskite solar cells and non-fullerene organic solar cells. Featuring asymmetric terminal conjugation and bromo functionality, it combines enhanced interfacial charge transfer and suppressed non-radiative recombination losses, opening for higher performance of all-perovskite, tandem and organic solar cells.

Full name:
(4-(10-bromo-7H-benzo[c]carbazol-7-yl)butyl)phosphonic acid

Typical properties:
MW = 432.25 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
• W. Wang, X. Liu, J. Wang, C. Chen, et al., Adv. Energy Mater., 2023, DOI: 10.1002/aenm.202300694

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DN-X41

2PATPA

Description:
DN-X41 (2PATPA) is a triphenylamine (TPA)-based SAM-type hole-transport material for inverted p-i-n perovskite solar cells, perovskite-based tandem solar cells and organic solar cells. DN-X41 is expected to create good surface wettability, facilitating good perovskite film formation, a good perovskite/HSL interface, and faster charge extraction, mitigating non-radiative recombination losses.

Full name:
(4-(diphenylamino)phenethyl)phosphonic acid

Typical properties:
MW = 353.36 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:

Additional information:
This product is covered by patents of Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH in Germany and Kaunas University of Technology in Lithuania. Please contact us for further information.

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DN-X42

Me-2PATPA

Description:
DN-X42 (Me-2PATPA) is a triphenylamine (TPA)-based SAM-type hole-transport material for inverted p-i-n perovskite solar cells, perovskite-based tandem solar cells and organic solar cells. By adding two methyl substituents to the structure of 2PATPA, one can expect similar effects as with the Me-4PACz in the PACz series of SAMs, i.e. improved device performance and stability.

Full name:
(4-(di-p-tolylamino)phenethyl)phosphonic acid

Typical properties:
MW = 381.41 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:

Additional information:
This product is covered by patents of Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH in Germany and Kaunas University of Technology in Lithuania. Please contact us for further information.

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DN-X43

MeO-2PATPA

Description:
DN-X43 (MeO-2PATPA) belongs to the PATPA series (DN-X42 to DN-X45). It is a SAM-type hole-transport material for inverted p-i-n perovskite solar cells, perovskite-based tandem solar cells and organic solar cells. Extending the structure of 2PATPA with two methoxy groups renders the MeO-2PATPA. In comparison to DN-X42, DN-X43 is expected to improve the wettability of the substrate.

Full name:
(4-(bis(4-methoxyphenyl)amino)phenethyl)phosphonic acid

Typical properties:
MW = 413.41 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:

Additional information:
This product is covered by patents of Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH in Germany and Kaunas University of Technology in Lithuania. Please contact us for further information.

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DN-X44

Br-2PATPA

Description:
DN-X44 (Br-2PATPA) is the bromo-substituted derivative from the PATPA series (DN-X42 to DN-X45). It is a SAM-type hole-transport material for inverted p-i-n perovskite solar cells, perovskite-based tandem solar cells and organic solar cells. With two bromine atoms as ending groups, an interaction between the perovskite and the SAM layer is expected, hence, suppressed defects and facilitated hole extraction can be anticipated in devices based on Br-2PATPA as HTL.

Full name:
(4-(bis(4-bromophenyl)amino)phenethyl)phosphonic acid

Typical properties:
MW = 511.50 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:

Additional information:
This product is covered by patents of Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH in Germany and Kaunas University of Technology in Lithuania. Please contact us for further information.

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DN-X45

Ph-2PATPA

Description:
DN-X45 (Ph-2PATPA) belongs to the PATPA series (DN-X42 to DN-X45). It is a TPA-based SAM-type hole-transport material for inverted p-i-n perovskite solar cells, perovskite-based tandem solar cells and organic solar cells. By introducing a benzene ring to 2PATPA (DN-X42) more aligned energy levels with respect to the perovskite valence band, improved surface wettability and faster charge extraction are expected.

Full name:
(4-(di([1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)amino)phenethyl)phosphonic acid

Typical properties:
MW = 505.55 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:

Additional information:
This product is covered by patents of Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH in Germany and Kaunas University of Technology in Lithuania. Please contact us for further information.

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DN-X46

2PANaPA

Description:
DN-X46 (2PANaPA) is a TPA-based SAM-type hole-transport material that is constructed with an extended conjugated terminal group of naphthalene. It is designed for usage in inverted p-i-n perovskite solar cells and organic solar cells. With the extended conjugation in the functional moiety, improved film coverage and surface wettability is expected, i.e. fast hole extraction and suppressed interfacial non-radiative recombination losses.

Full name:
(4-(di(naphthalen-2-yl)amino)phenethyl)phosphonic acid

Typical properties:
MW = 453.48 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
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DN-X47

Ph-2PACz

Description:
DN-X47 (Ph-2PACz) is a carbazole-based SAM-type hole-transpot material for wide bandgap perovskite solar cells that also is suitable for multi-junction perovskite-based tandem devices. DN-X47 was realized by molecular engineering of 2PACz (DN-X09) by introduction of a benzene ring. In comparison to DN-X09, DN-X47 exhibits lower band offset between its HOMO energy level and the perovskite VB, better surface wettability, facilitating better perovskite film formation, better perovskite/HTL interface, and faster charge extraction. As a result, DN-X47 enhanced Voc and fill-factor, and has shown an efficiency of 21.3% when combined with a 1.67 eV bandgap p-i-n single-junction perovskite solar cell. When usedd in a perovskite-silicon tandem device, and a PCE of 28.9% with a high Voc of 1.91 V. In addition, a high stability was demonstrated when compared to devices based on PTAA and 2PACz-as hole-transport layers.

Full name:
(2-(3,6-diphenyl-9H-carbazol-9-yl)ethyl)phosphonic acid

Typical properties:
MW = 427.44 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
• G. Wang, K. Ding, H. Ho-Baillie, et al., Joule, 2023, DOI: 10.1016/j.joule.2023.09.007

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DN-X48

MeO-4PADBC

Description:
DN-X48 (MeO-4PADBC) is a SAM-type hole-selective layer for inverted p-i-n PSCs. Molecular engineering of the terminal group with a methoxyl group of 4PADCB enables the MeO-4PADBC. Anchored to an NiOx film to construct an NiOx/MeO-4PADBC hole-extraction layer, which has been shown to exhibit an optimal dipole moment and amenable surface for favorable contact with a perovskite film resulting in an ideal energetic alignment, fast hole extraction, and low defect density. Such an interface configuration also immobilizes the SAM molecules at the NiOx/perovskite interface and produces a robust hole-selective layer (HSL) for thermally stable PSCs that display thermal degradation activation energy about 3 times better than that of ITO/MeO-4PADBC. These synergetic effects was shown to enable a verified power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 25.6%. Wider bandgap perovskite compositions in PSC devices also showed encouraging PCEs of 22.7% and 20.1%.

Full name:
(4-(3,11-dimethoxy-7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazol-7-yl)butyl)phosphonic acid

Typical properties:
MW = 463.47 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
• Z. Li, Z. Zhu, et al., Science, 2023, DOI: 10.1126/science.ade9637

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DN-X49

DCB-BPA

Description:
DN-X49 (DCB-BPA) is a SAM-type, hole-selective layer material for wide-band-gap perovskite solar cells, i.e. it is suitable for multi-junction, perovskite-based tandem devices. Due to molecular engineering of DN-X26 (4PADCB) by introduction of two bromo-groups, DCB-BPA, shows more favorable energy level alignment with the perovskite film and a reduced defect-state density at the HTL/perovskite interface. This leads to the formation of a high-quality buried interface with minimal non-radiative recombination losses. With these benefits, a certified high VOC of up to 1.34 V with a PCE of 18.88% was achieved, which is among the highest values reported for wide-bandgap perovskite devices.

Full name:
(2-(3,6-diphenyl-9H-carbazol-9-yl)ethyl)phosphonic acid

Typical properties:
MW = 561.21 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
• W. Wang, Z. Lin, W. Tang, et al., Adv. Funct. Mater., 2023, DOI: 10.1002/adfm.202303653
• Z. Yi, W. Wang, D. Zhao, et al., Energy Environ. Sci., 2023, DOI: 10.1039/D3EE02839A

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DN-X50

DC-PA

Description:
DN-X50 (DC-PA) is a versatile SAM molecule suitable for wide bandgap perovskite solar cells, perovskite/perovskite, perovskite/OPV and perovskite/Si tandem devices. It is an isomer of DN-X13, where the difference lies at the position of the methoxy group resulting in a lower HOMO energy level and dipole moment.

Full name:
(2-(2,7-dimethoxy-9H-carbazol-9-yl)ethyl)phosphonic acid

Typical properties:
MW = 335.30 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
• X. Deng, F. Qi, K.-Y. Yen, et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2022, DOI: 10.1002/anie.202203088
• S. Wu, Y. Yan, J. Yin, et al., Nature Energy, 2024, DOI: 10.1038/s41560-024-01451-8

Additional information:
This product is covered by patents of Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH in Germany and Kaunas University of Technology in Lithuania. Please contact us for further information.

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DN-X51

Br-4PADBC

Description:
DN-X51 (Br-4PADBC) is a SAM-type, hole-selective layer (HSL) material for inverted PSCs and tandem devices. It is an isomer of DN-X49 that may passivate defects in the perovskite film and therefore improve the buried interface between the perovskite material and the TCO substrate.

Full name:
(4-(3,11-dibromo-7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazol-7-yl)butyl)phosphonic acid

Typical properties:
MW = 561.21 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
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DN-X52

CbzBT

Description:
DN-X52 (CbzBT) is an asymmetric SAM-type, hole-selective layer (HSL) material designed by molecular engineering with a Lewis-basic sulfur heteroatom. It has shown excellent molecular packing, efficient ITO work-function adjustment, and buried interface passivation.

Full name:
(4-(5H-benzo[4,5]thieno[3,2-c]carbazol-5-yl)butyl)phosphonic acid

Typical properties:
MW = 409.44 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
• W. Jiang, M. Liu, A. Jen, et al., Chem. Sci., 2024, DOI: 10.1039/d3sc05485c




DN-X53

PTZ-CPA

Description:
DN-X53 (PTZ-CPA) is a multifunctional amphiphilic molecular hole-transporter. The cyanovinyl phosphonic acid (CPA) group opens for a superwetting, hole-selective underlayer that enables facile deposition of high-quality FAPbI3 thin films. In addition to the enhanced crystallinity of FAPbI3, the electronic defects are efficiently passivated by the PTZ-CPA, resulting in an excellent photoluminescence quantum yield (four-fold) and Shockley-Read-Hall lifetime (eight-fold). Moreover, the PTZ-CPA shows a beneficial molecular dipole moment and energy-level alignment with respect to FAPbI3. Using PTZ-CPA, a FAPbI3-based inverted perovskite cell efficiency of 25.35% has been reported.

Full name:
(E)-(2-(4-(10H-phenothiazin-10-yl)phenyl)-1-cyanovinyl)phosphonic acid

Typical properties:
MW = 406.40 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
• H. Zhang, W. Zhu, Y. Wu, et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2024, DOI: 10.1002/anie.202401260




DN-X54

MeO-PhPACz

Description:
DN-X54 (MeO-PhPACz) is a SAM based on a fully aromatic carbazole core, utilizing a conjugated phenylene as linker to facilitate electron/charge delocalization and to stabilize the electron-rich carbazole moiety. Applied in inverted wide-band gap (1.68 eV) perovskite solar cells, MeO-PhPACz exhibits notable properties such as forming a highly dense monolayer, modulating energy levels, promoting hole extraction/transport, and suppressing interfacial recombination. Devices with impressive power conversion efficiencies (PCE) up to 21.1% along with enhanced long-term and thermal stability have been made. Moreover, the intrinsic UV absorption contributes to an enhanced UV resistance of the devices.

Full name:
(4-(3,6-dimethoxy-9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)phosphonic acid

Typical properties:
MW = 383.34 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
• C. Li, C. Nazeeruddin, et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2024, DOI: 10.1002/anie.202315281




DN-X55

Me-PhpPACz

Description:
DN-X55 (Me-PhpPACz) is a SAM from the PACz series. The difference to Me-4PACz lies in the connecting linker between the functional group and the anchored unit, which in this case is a a conjugated phenylene. Compared to Me-4PACz, the Me-PhpPACz molecule exhibits a higher photoelectric stability and is less susceptible to bending and folding during molecular assembly. This facilitates the formation of a high-density, well-ordered SAM film. Me-PhpPACz-based perovskite devices exhibit a more compatible energy level alignment, enhanced device hole extraction, and transport efficiency, effectively reducing the interface carrier non-radiative recombination losses. Efficiencies up to 26.17% (ff of 86.79%) with high long-term stability have been demonstrated.

Full name:
(4-(3,6-dimethyl-9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)phosphonic acid

Typical properties:
MW = 351.34 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
• G. Qu, A. Jen, et al., Joule, 2024, DOI: 10.1016/j.joule.2024.05.005




DN-X57

IDCz-1

Description:
DN-X57 (IDCz-1) is a bisphosphonate-anchored indolocarbazole (IDCz)-derived SAM. It is constructed by a symmetric 5,11-dihydroindolo[3,2-b]carbazole as the core, two phosphates as anchoring groups. The enlarged pi-conjugated building block generates enhanced molecular stacking, facilitates the interfacial charge extraction passivating surface defects, and thereby can potentially enhance the overall device performance.

Full name:
(indolo[3,2-b]carbazole-5,11-diylbis(propane-3,1-diyl))bis(phosphonic acid)

Typical properties:
MW = 500.43 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
• J. Wu, H. Sun, et al., Adv. Mater., 2024, DOI: 10.1002/adma.202401537




DN-X58

3-BPIC

Description:
DN-X58 (3-BPIC) is a bisphosphonate-anchored indolocarbazole (IDCz)-derived SAM molecule. It is constructed by an asymmetric 11,12-dihydroindolo[2,3-a]carbazole as core unit and two phosphates as anchoring groups, thereby generating a molecular dipolar moment to strengthening the molecular interactions, regulating the energy levels and passivating the interfacial traps. Inverted (p-i-n) perovskite solar cell efficiencies above 23% have been reported using 3-BPIC.

Full name:
(indolo[2,3-a]carbazole-11,12-diylbis(propane-3,1-diyl))bis(phosphonic acid)

Typical properties:
MW = 500.43 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
• H. Liu, Y. Liu, et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2024, DOI: 10.1021/jacs.4c03917
• J. Wu, H. Sun, et al., Adv. Mater., 2024, DOI: 10.1002/adma.202401537




DN-X59

3-BPIC-F

Description:
DN-X59 (3-BPIC-F) belongs to the bisphosphonate-anchored indolocarbazole (IDCz)-derived SAM family. The difference as compared to DN-X58 is that DN-X59 contains a fluoride dihydroindolo[2,3-b] carbazole unit as the central building block. The incorporation of fluorine atoms, makes 3-BPIC-F exhibit a deeper highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level and a larger dipole moment as compared to 3-BPIC, resulting in a higher work function (WF) for the ITO/3-BPIC-F substrate. These advantages of 3-BPIC-F improve the hole extraction in the devices and as well reduce the interfacial impedance and nonradiative recombination at the interface. As a result, organic solar cell (OPV) efficiencies of 19.71% were reported using 3-BPIC-F, i.e. significantly higher than for 3-BPIC(i) (13.54%) and 3-BPIC (19.34%). In addition, 3-BPIC-F-based organic solar cells show a significantly enhanced stability as compared to those based on PEDOT:PSS as HTL.

Full name:
((3,8-difluoroindolo[2,3-a]carbazole-11,12-diyl)bis(propane-3,1-diyl))bis(phosphonic acid)

Typical properties:
MW = 536.41 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
• H. Liu, Y. Liu, et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2024, DOI: 10.1021/jacs.4c03917




DN-X60

IDCz-3

Description:
DN-X60 (IDCz-3) is also from the same series of the bisphosphonate-anchored indolocarbazole (IDCz)-derived SAMs. As an isomer to DN-X57, DN-X60 is constructed by different asymmetric 5,7-dihydroindolo[2,3-b]carbazole units with a larger dipole moment. With this property, the meta-IDCz-3 compound (DN-X60) shows the largest dipole moment, 4.27 D, as compared to IDCZ-1 (DN-X57) (μ=0.98 D) and the strongly related 3-BPIC (DN-X58; μ=1.41 D). Molecules with larger dipole moments offer stronger interactions with the perovskite film, contributing to the formation of better crystal quality. The stronger dipole interactions at the interface causes the perovskite band to bend at the ITO/IDCz-3/perovskite interface, thereby facilitating hole extraction and blocking electron transfer. Inverted perovskite solar cell efficiencies of 25.15% have been reported for devices with IDCz-3 as HTL.

Full name:
(indolo[2,3-b]carbazole-5,7-diylbis(propane-3,1-diyl))bis(phosphonic acid)

Typical properties:
MW = 500.43 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
• H. Liu, Y. Liu, et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2024, DOI: 10.1021/jacs.4c03917
• J. Wu, H. Sun, et al., Adv. Mater., 2024, DOI: 10.1002/adma.202401537




DN-X61

3PATAT-C3

Description:
DN-X61 (3PATPA-C3) is a tripodal propyl phosphonic acid functionalized triazatruxene derivative SAM. The 3PATAT-C3 with three phosphonic acid groups demonstrates a face-on anchoring orientation with respect to an ITO substrate, which enables more efficient orbital overlapping between the perovskite film material and 3PATAT-C3. Consequently, devices based on this tripod SAM demonstrated a very high perovskite solar cell efficiency (23.0%) in relation to devices based on MeO-2PACz (21.0%).

Full name:
((5H-diindolo[3,2-a:3',2'-c]carbazole-5,10,15-triyl)tris(propane-3,1-diyl))tris(phosphonic acid)

Typical properties:
MW = 711.58 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
• M. A. Truong, T. Suzuki, et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2023, DOI: 10.1021/jacs.3c00805




DN-IH01

NiOx

Description:
DN-IH01 (NiOx) is a water-dispersible inorganic P-type metal oxide with merits of high carrier mobility, deep and aligned energy levels, high optical transparency, and good chemical stability. Collectively, these features make the material a promising HTM candidate for stable and efficient inverted p-i-n perovskite solar cells. With NiOx as HTL alone, perovskite solar cells exceeding 24% efficiency have been reported. In addition, SAM-modified NiOx layers, i.e. SAM/NiOx bilayers, have emerged as an attractive route to scalable production of inverted perovskite devices and Si-perovskite tandem devices. In addition to the scalability, such SAM/NiOx bilayers are effective in optimizing the energy alignment mitigating interfacial charge recombination losses with advantages of forming more uniform and stable hole-selective contacts in conrast to SAMs alone.

Full name:
Nickel oxide

Typical properties:
MW = 74.69 g/mol

Recommended device concept:
• p-i-n Perovskite solar cells

References:
• H. Chen, E. Sargent, Z. Ning, et al., Adv. Mater., 2019, DOI: 10.1002/adma.201903559
• J. Xu, H. Chen, L. Grater, et al., Nature Mater., 2023, DOI: 10.1038/s41563-023-01705-y
• Z. Li, Z. Zhu, et al., Science, 2023, DOI: 10.1126/science.ade9637
• Y. Shiqi, J. You, et al., Science, 2023, DOI: 10.1126/science.adj8858





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